90 terms

The Cardiovascular System

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True of False
Heart disease is caused by a disturbance in the function of the cardiac pump
True
Epicardium
the thin, transparent outer layer of the heart wall; also called the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
Myocardium
the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
Endocardium
the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
True of False
The right and left atria receive venous blood returning to the heart
True
True or False
The left ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
False, the right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
True or False
Once blood is oxygenated by the lungs it returns to the left atrium of the heart
True
True or False
The left ventricle pumps oxygen rich blood throughout the body
True
True or False
Blood returning to the heart after circulation is returned to the left atrium
False, blood returning to the heart after circulation is returned to the right atrium
True of False
The "right heart" circulates blood into the pulmonary artery and throughout the lungs (pulmonary circulation)
True
True of False
The "left heart" pumps blood into the aorta for distribution to the various organs and tissues in the body (systemic circulation)
True
True of False
Contraction of cardiac muscle reduces the size of the atria or ventricles, raising the pressure of the blood within the compressed chambers, which squeezes blood out of the chambers.
True
Atrioventricular Valve
The flaplike heart valve located between the atrium and ventricle
Semilunar Valves
The cup-shaped valved located between the ventricles and the aorta or pulmonary artery
True or False
When the heart relaxes in diastole, the chordae produce tension on the valves and pull the arterioventricle valves apart.
True
True of False
The right coronary artery divides into two parts
False, The left coronary artery divides into two parts
True or False
The leading cause of death for smokers is lung cancer
False, the leading cause of death for smokers is heart disease
Right Atrium
the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
Left Atrium
the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
Right Ventricle
the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
Left Ventricle
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
True of False
The pulmonary artery is unique because it does not carry oxygenated blood, it carries blood from the heart to the lungs
True
True of False
The pulmonary vien is unique because it carries oxygenated blood, it carries blood back to the heart from the lungs
True
Vien
A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
Artery
a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body (oxygenated)
True or False
Coronary arteries originate off the aorta
True
Sinoatrial Node (SA)
the pacemaker; highly specialized neurological tissue, embedded in the wall of the right atrium, responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
Atrioventricular Node (AV)
This area at the junction of the right atrium and ventricle receives the stimulus from the sinoatrial node and sends the impulse to the ventricles through the bundle of His.
Bundle of HIS
a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
Perkinje Fibers
End of the conduction system; sends impulses through the ventricles, causing them to contract
True or False
Systolic hypertension is a greater indicator for the development of heart disease
False, diastolic hypertension is a greater indicator for the development of heart disease
True of False
Systolic pressure is highest during ventricular contraction
True
True or False
Diastolic pressure is highest when the ventricles are relaxed
False, diastolic pressure is lowest when the ventricles are relaxed
Collateral Circulation
circulation by secondary channels after obstruction of the principal channel supplying the heart
Atrial Fibrillation
occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall
ECG
Abbreviation for electrocardiogram, which is a record of the electrical activity of the heart.
P wave
The P wave reflects the initial wave of depolarization associated with atrial systole.
Systole
the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
QRS complex
the second wave on the EKG that begins as a downward deflection, continues as a large, upright, triangular wave, and ends as a downward wave; represents rapid ventricular depolarization
T wave
the third, dome-shaped upward deflection of the EKG that represents ventricular repolarization, and occurs just as the ventricles begin to relax
PR interval
Time required for conduction from the SA node to AV node. The time between atrail and ventricular deplarization. This is normally 0.12 to 0.2 seconds.
AV bundle
The only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles. Also known as the bundle of HIS
Ventricular Fibrillation
fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest
Foramen Ovale
during fetal development - interarterial opening which allows blood to flow freely from the right to left atrium - bypassing pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary stenosis
abnormal narrowing of the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle
Aortic stenosis
abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve
Tetralogy of Fallot
A congenital heart defect producing cyanosis. Characterized by four symptoms: pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect and malposition of the aorta over both ventricles and hypertrophy of the right ventricle
Patent ductus arteriosus
a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth
Rheumatic Fever
a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently causes damage to the heart valves
Rheumatic Heart Disease
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
True or False
Prophylactic penicillin may prevent recurrent rheumatic fever
True
Infective Endocartitis
An infection of a heart valve usually caused by a bacterial infection.
True or False
Endocarditis is especially problematic for individuals who may have previous heart valve damage
True
Name the six most significant factors for heart disease:
1- Hypertension
2- Elevated blood cholesterol
3- Elevated low density lipoprotein level
4- Smoking
5- Obesity
6- Diabetes
Name the less significant risk factors for heart disease:
1- Lack of exercise
2- High caffiene intake
3- High stress levels
Name the uncontrollable factors for heart disease:
1- Genetics (family history)
2- Age
3- Gender
Myocardial Infarction
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
Coronary Artery Disease
Narrowing of the coronary arteries due to plaque on the vessel walls
Arteriosclerosis
thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of arterial walls
Atherosclerosis
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
Arrythmia
irregular heart beat
Bradycardia
slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute
Tachycardia
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
Pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Abnormal closure of the mitral valve so that blood refluxes backward into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
True of False
It is estimated that 33% of people who suffer a myocardial infaction die immediately
True
Coronary Artery Disease
disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
Myocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
Congestive Heart Failure
syndrome where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients; as a result, fluid is retained and accumulates in the ankles and legs
Cyanotic Heart Defect
Infant is born with cyanosis
Acyanotic Heart Defect
No problems evident at birth
Cardiac Arrest
cessation of heart activity
Cardiomyopathy
Disease of the heart muscle that leads to generalized deterioration of the muscle and its pumping ability
Aneurysm
a cardiovascular disease characterized by a sac-like widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
Cerebral Infarction
Loss of blood supply to brain because of vascular occlusion
Cerebral Thrombosis
a blood clot in a cerebral artery or vein
Encephalomalacia
softening of the brain
Cerebral Embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
Cerebral Hemorrhage
bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain
Hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
Hemiparesis
weakness on one side of the body
True or False
Stroke is the leading cause of death in the U.S.
False, stroke is the htird leading cause of death in the U.S.
Transient Ischemia Attack
mini-stroke, breif episodes of neurologic dysfunction
Aphasia
loss of speech due to injury or illness
True or False
1/4 of patients with TIA have a stroke
False, 1/3 of patients with TIA have a stroke
Meningitis
infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection
Encephalitis
inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus
Meningoencephalitis
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord and their meninges
Myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord
Poliomyelitis
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord