the owner has unlimited personal liability
a major disadvantage of a sole proprietorship is the fact that
amount of cash flows, timing of cash flows and risk taken to generate cash flows
the three facotrs that determine the market value of a company's share of stock are
weak-form market efficieny
the fact that no investor can expect to earn excess returns based on an investment strategy using only historical stock price of historical return information is an example of
bondholders and stockholders
protective covenants in a company's bond indentures are used in agency relationships involving __&__
the accounting of that portion of a firm's assets that were finance from past earnings is represented by
deterministic, and probabilistic
computerized financial planning models may be classified as any of the following
"golden parachute" contracts
giving top management _________ is one method that ensures managers will act in the interest of shareholders in merger decisions
provides a way to consider the risk of the returns being offered
the objective of maximizing shareholder wealth, as measured by the market value of the firm's stock..
identify potential cash flow problems in advance
cash budgeting can be employed effectively by management to
low profit margin and high asset turnover
a fresh fruit wholesaler would normally be expected to have
cash flows should be measured on an incremental basis
which of the following is a basic principle when estimating a project's cash flows??
the loss may be used to offset operating income
if a firm sells an asset for less that its book value..
purchase of a 90-day treasury bill
which of the following would not be classified as a capital expenditure for decision-making purposes?
cash dividend payments and capital gains
the returns investors receive from holding common stocks may be in two forms. they are:
security market line
this is defined as provides a picture of the risk-return tradeoff required by diversified investors considering various risky assets
the most relevant risk that must be considered for any widely traded individual security is its ________
that portion of the variability of an individual security's return caused by factors affecting the market as a whole
total asset turnover ratio
indicates how effectively a firm uses its total resources to generate sales and is a summary measure influenced by each of the asset management ratios
fixed-asset turnover ratio
indicates the extent to which a firm is using existing PPE to generate sales
debt to equity ratio
relates the amount of a firm's debt financing to the amount of equity financing
gross profit margin
measure the relative profitability of a firm's sales after the cost of sales has been deducted, revelaing how effectively the firm's management is making decisions regarding pricing and the control of production costs
the ___ is a statistical measure of the mean or average value of the possible outcomes
when comparing two equal sized investments, the ____ is an appropriate measure of total risk
foreign competition with an industry's products
which of the following is not an example of a source of systematic risk?
shift it up and to left
All other things being equal, what is the major impact that an increase in the expected inflation rate would be expected to have on the security market line?
less positively, greater
The ____ correlated the returns from two securities are, the ____ will be the portfolio effects of risk reduction.
changes in inflation
All of the following factors have their primary impact on unsystematic risk except
multiple risk factors
Arbitrage pricing theory is a model that relates expected returns on securities
capital asset pricing model
In the ____, the expected return on a security is equal to the risk-free rate plus a single risk premium that is equal to the product of the expected rate of return on the market portfolio less the risk-free rate times the sensitivity of the security's returns to the market return.
The security returns from multinational companies tend to have ____ systematic risk than domestic companies.
Investors generally are considered to be risk ____ because they expect to be compensated for assuming risk.
The term structure of interest rates is the pattern of interest rate yields for debt securities that are similar in all respects except for differences in
the length of time to maturity
The term structure of interest rates is the pattern of interest rate yields for securities that differ only in
According to the ____, long-term interest rates are a function of expected short-term interest rates.
____ refers to the ability of an investor to buy and sell a company's securities quickly and without a significant loss of value.
The ____ theory of the yield curve holds that required returns on long-term securities tend to be greater the longer the time to maturity.
On the capital market line (CML), any risk-return combination beyond the Market Portfolio (m) is obtained by ____.
That portion of the risk premium that is based on the ability of the borrower to repay principal and interest is the:
The most important factor to be considered in the valuation of a closely held firm is
disposition of excess warrants
Which one of the following is not a reason a firm may decide to repurchase its own stock.
If the general level of interest rates in the economy moves up, then investors will require a ____ rate of return on securities, and, in general, stock prices should ____, ceteris paribus.
The rights of stockholders to share equally on a per share basis in any distributions of corporate earnings is known as ____.
capital gains yield and dividend yield
In the constant growth dividend valuation model, the required rate of return on a common stock is equal to the sum of the ____.
The difference between the selling price to the public of a new issue and the net the issuing firm actually receives is known as the
marginnal investor's required rate of return
When the market for an asset is in equilibrium, the expected rate of return on the asset is equal to the:
The ____ the investor's required rate of return on a bond, the ____ will be the value of the bond to the investor.
required rate of return
The value of a perpetual bond is equal to the annual interest payment divided by the:
The value of a 15-year bond will change ____ for a given change in the required rate of return than the value of a 5 year bond.
Which of the following is a financial model that attempts to maximize or minimize the value of a criterion function (e.g., profits, costs)?
____ is the statistical technique that helps the analyst classify observations (firms) into two or more predetermined groups based on certain characteristics of the observation.
In considering financial planning, the type of planning that focuses more on the overall direction of the business and the industry is:
times interest earned
Which ratio is frequently used in conjunction with the analysis of a bond's quality?
increase its equity multiplier
If a firm wishes to retain the same return on equity when its net profit margin and total asset turnover has declined, it must
fixed charge coverage
The ____ ratio is a more severe measure of a firm's ability to meet fixed financial obligations than is the times interest earned ratio
A savings and loan association is an example of which type of financial intermediary?
hey quickly reflect information relevant to determining stock value
The U.S. financial markets are said to be highly informationally efficient. This means
low transaction costs
The barriers to the free flow of capital among the major world capital markets include all of the following except:
separation of ownership and control
The primary reason for the divergence between the shareholder wealth maximization goal and the actual goals pursued by management has been attributed to
financial management association
The ____ has a goal of serving as a bridge between academic study of finance and the application of financial principles by financial managers.
total shareholder wealth
____ equals the number of shares outstanding times the market price per share.
The net present value of an investment made by a firm represents the contribution of that investment to the ____ of the firm.
back 2, forward 20
A corporation's net operating loss may be carried ____ years and ____ years to offset taxable income in those years.
The value of resources used in an investment project should be measured in terms of their
In estimating the net investment, an outlay that has already been made is known as a (n) ____.
The ____ the amount of depreciation charged in a period, the ____ will be the firm's taxable income.
simplified capital budgeting model
The set of investment projects arranged in descending order according to their expected rates of return is known as the ____.
A(n) ____ project is one whose acceptance is dependent on the adoption of one or more other projects.
When two or more normal ____ projects are under consideration, the profitability index, the net present value, and the internal rate of return methods will yield identical accept/reject signals.
firm's value is the sum of the value of all the projects undertaken
The "value additivity principle" means that the
Generally, the existence of a(n) ____ option reduces the downside risk of a project and should be considered in project analysis.
risk free rate
The discount rate used in calculating the certainty equivalent net present value is the