Microbiology Chapter 4 Vocab
Foundations in Microbiology Talaro and Chess 8e
Terms in this set (35)
An individual membrane-bound living entity; the smallest unit capable of an independent existence.
Dense fluid encased by the cell membrane; the site of many of the cell's biochemical and synthetic activies.
The tightly coiled bodies in cells that are the primary sites of genes.
A bilobed macromolecular complex of ribonucleoprotein that coordinates the codons of mRNA with the tRNA anticodons and, in so doing, constitutes the peptide assemby site (site where amino acids are linked to build proteins)
A small componenet of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a membraine and specialized in function.
A general term for the totality of chemcial and physical processes ocurring in a cell.
Capacity of cells to respond to chemical, mechanical, or light stimuli. This property helps cells adapt to the environment and obtain nutrients.
A structure that is used to propel the organism through a fluid environment.
A type of flagellum (called an ednoflagellum) that lies in periplasmic space of spirochetes and is responsible for locomotion. Also called periplasmic flagellum.
A short, numerous surface appendage on some bacteria that provides adhesion but not locomotion.
Small, still filamentous appendages in gram-negative bacteria that function in DNA exchange during bacterial conjugation.
A filamentous network of carbohydrate-rich molecules that coat cells.
A network of polysaccharide chains cross-linked by short peptides that forms the rigid part of bacterial cell walls. Gram-negative bacteria have a small amount of this rigid structure compared to gram-postive bacteria.
A differential stain for bacteria useful in identification and taxonomy. Gram-positive organisms appear purple from crystal violet-mordant retention, whereas gram-negative organisms appear red after loss of crystal violet and absorption of safranin.
A structure made of lipids in the outer layer of the cell wall of a gram-negative bacteria
The basophilic nuclear region or nuclear body that contains the bacterial chromosome.
Extrachromosomal genetic units characterized by several features. A plasmid is a double stranded DNA that is smaller than and replicated independently of the cell chromosome; it bears genes that are not essential for cell growth; it can bear the genes that code for adaptive traits; and it is transmissible to other bacteria.
A relatively inert body in the cytoplasm such as storage granules glucogon, fat, or some other aggregated metabolic product.
A fine intracellular network of fibers, filaments, and other strands that function in support and shape of cells.
Fine protein fibers within cells that contribute to structure and support.
A small, dormant, resistant derivative of a bacterial cell that germinates under favorable growth conditions into a vegetative cell.
A spherical (round) shaped bacterial cell.
Bacterial shape that is cylindrical (rod shaped)
A type of bacterial cell with a rigid spiral shape and external flagella
A coiled, spiral-shaped bacterium that has endoflagella and flexes as it moves.
Normal variability of cell shapes in single species
An elongated coccus; a short, thick oval shaped bacterial rod.
A curved, rod-shaped bacterail cell.
SPherical or oval shaped bacterial cells, typically found in pairs.
Groups of four bacteria.
A cubical packet of 8, 16, or more cells.
The characteristic arrangement of Corynebacterium cells resembling a row of fenc posts and created by snapping.
In microbiology, a set of descendents cloned from a common ancestor that retains the original characteristics. Any deviation from the original is a different strain.
Medically important family of bacteria, commonly carried by ticks, lice, and fleas. Significant cause of important emerging diseases.
Without alternative, restricted to a particular characteristic.