Mao and Communist China

STUDY
PLAY
Who was overthrown in the Revolution of 1911?
Imperial Dynasty (Qing Dynasty)
What do the four stars on the Chinese flag represent?
Farmers, Workers, Soldiers, Teachers
According to communism, the ______ will rise up and overthrow the owners of property and means of production.
Proletariat
Who are the proletariat?
Industrial Working Class
Who did the Communists rely on because they didn't have a large proletariat
Poor Peasants
Who led the Nationalists? (Replaced Dr. Sun Yat-Sen)
Chiang Kai-Shek
Who led the Chinese Communist Party?
Mao Zedong
Mao gained support from the ______ in the countryside who hated their land lords. Wanted to ____ all foreigners
Peasants, Expell
Appeal of Communists/Mao:
1. A better life for the _______ (classless society)
2. Develop a _____ economy (be competitive w/West)
3. Restore China as a ____ power (no more humiliation)
Poor, Modern, World
The civil war between the nationalists and communists quieted a bit for a few years because both were fighting whom (in WWII)?
Japanese
Where did the nationalists retreat in 1949 and set up a rival government?
Taiwan
What is the collection of maoist quotations and teachings often called?
Little Red Book
When did the civil war occur?
1920-1937
Who was the original leader of the nationalists? He was later replaced by Chiang Kai-Shek
Dr. Sun Yat-sen
To restore order after the chaos of WWII and the Civil War (with nationalists), Communists established a ______ ____.
Totalitarian State
Name the form of government:
➣Political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners, for profit, rather than by the state
Capitalism
Name the form of government:
➣System of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state; state over individual
Communism
Chinese born, British writer now living in London, best known for her family autobiography, "Wild Swans." She has written other books such as "Mao: The Unknown Story"
Jung Chang
Name the event:
➣Occurred in the 1930's
➣Nationalists chasing Communists to get rid of them
➣Communists survive, meet up in N. China w/Russians
➣80,000 communists died
➣Ended around 1935
Long March
What was formed in 1949 as a totalitarian state after the communists beat the nationalists?
Peoples Republic of China 1949
Name the event:
➣China divided into communes, individuals are assigned jobs, it was used as a way to mobilize the population to build infrastructure
➣Disaster; Peasants resisted, food production fell, millions died in famine
Great Leap Forward
Name the event:
➣Mao feared being overthrown, so he reaches out to students and young factories workers to hold mass rallies and punish those who had the possibility of being a counter-revolutionary
➣Created chaos
Cultural Revolution
What country was a model for the success of the Communist Party for China?
Soviet Union
Why did Mao launch the cultural revolution?
➣He feared _______-________ forces would gain upper hand, so he had to change the whole "culture" of China and root out enemies: _______, traditionalists
➣Thought the ___ ______ had to experience "revolution" firsthand (too young to know the nationalist vs. communist struggle)
Counter-Revolutionary, Capitalists, New Generation
How was the Cultural Revolution carried out?
➣Mao reached out to students and young factory workers - they now had a purpose
➣The Red Guards (young people) held _____ _____ promoting Mao and communism. They ______ the Revolution's enemies who had supported nationalists, and even ____ who didn't toe the line (or out of revenge)
➣Victims were ______ ______, beaten, killed, and sent to work (re-education) camps in the countryside. Example to all.
Mass Rallies, Targeted, Teachers, Publicly Humiliated
Who made up the red guard?
Students, Young Factory Workers
Impact of Cultural Revolution:
➣Created ____; factory production slowed down, schools closed, families split or destroyed
➣Mao ______ ____: no one blamed Chairman Mao (either out of fear or true belief that it was not HIS fault, but local party leaders)
Chaos, Consolidated Power
What did Mao do in 1969 when he realized the red guard was getting out of hand in its abuse of its authority?
Sent them to the countryside (to "educate the peasants" - but it was really the other way around)
What was the major event that occurred in 1976
Mao Died
What does the big star of the People's republic of China flag represent? (Big star on red china flag)
Communism
Close associates including the 4th wife of Mao who made party decisions when Mao was sick for 4-5 years (they pulled the strings)
"Gang of Four"
What happened to the gang of four when Mao died in 1976?
They lost authority and were overthrown
A long time communist party leader who escaped the purges but was sent to work camp, emerged as China's new leader after Mao died
Deng Xiaoping
Four Modernizations (by Xioaping):
1. Modernize _______
2. Expand _____
3. Develop _____/______
4. Upgrade China's ______
Agriculture, Industry, Science/Technology, Defense
A man who pushed within the communist party for political reform
➣Students grieved publicly at his death
➣Protested because of government corruption
Hu Yaobang
Chinese civilian who stood up to the soldiers in tanks
Tank Man
Why did tank man do what he did?
He wanted the army to leave Beijing
Two theories of tank man's death:
➣He was ____. They thought the plain-clothed policeman found him and took him into custody
➣He is ____ and stayed quiet. He was ushered away by concerned citizens and blended in with crowd.
Killed, Alive
The nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek's wife - Madame Kai-shek - attended what US college which shaped her modern, western views?
Wellesley College
Who started the protests in Tiananmen square in the spring of 1989?
Students
What were the group of students protesting for in Tiananmen Square?
Political Freedom
Most of the deaths during the Tiananmnen Square massacre really took place in the _____ outside ___.
Streets, City
Give the date: Formation of the People's republic of China
1949
Give the date: Great Leap Forward
1958
Give the date: Cultural Revolution
1966-76
Give the date: Communist Revolution ends (Mao dies)
1976
Name the "Two Chinas":
Shanghai, Anwar Province
Which "China" (Shanghai/Anwar Province):
➣Free economic zones
➣Industrial
➣Centers of production - jobs
➣Big middle class - wealth
Shanghai
Which "China" (Shanghai/Anwar Province):
➣Underdeveloped, lack of infrastructure
➣No internet, no electricity
➣Poor
➣Lack education, healthcare, lack of resources
➣Like 1960's
Anwar Province
What is the backbone of communism for China?
Workers
Mao's "Great Leap Forward"
➣China divided into ______ (several villages, 1000s acres, 20,000 people)
➣Individuals assigned ___ and in return get free medical care, housing, schooling, childcare
➣Way to ______ population to build infrastructure (canals, irrigation, ditches, factories, roads, etc.)
Communes, Jobs, Mobilize
Disaster of "Great Leap Forward"
1. ______ resisted and sometimes destroyed crops in anger
2. ____ _____ fell as workers were assigned to work other projects (bad planning and management)
3. Some didn't ____ ____ (because they were guaranteed food and housing)
4. Floods and droughts: ______ died in famine 1959-60
Peasants, Food Production, Work Hard, Millions
Finger pointing for failure of GLF:
➣Many in party blamed ___ for disaster
➣Mao grew concerned about ____ groups within the party that would challenge him
➣Believed that new generation had to experience "_____" firsthand (too young to know the nationalist vs communist struggle)
Mao, Rival, Revolution