North Africa/Southwest Asia
Terms in this set (64)
Three monotheistic Abrahamic faiths: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
-Islam dominates the cultural landscape of this realm today
With brief periods of respite, the Arab-Israeli conflict has been more or less active since the 1967 Six Day War
shifting from conflict between separate sovereign states (Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria) to primarily conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians over the Palestinians over the establishment of Palestinian sovereign state status, or between Israel and various non-state actors, such as Hamas or Hezbollah.
Desert Storm - Iraq - 1990
Lebanon saw a civil war rage for the fifteen years between 1975 and 1990.
-1980s was a period of a bloody war between Iran and Iraq, followed by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and the first Gulf War in 1990.
-conflict was then followed by an attempted uprising by Shi'ites in the south of Iraq that was brutally suppressed by the regime of Saddam Hussein, who headed the Sunni-controlled government (even though Sunnis constituted a minority of the country's population)
-The US led invasion of Iraq, which eventually resuled in Hussein's ouster and execution, ran from 2003 through 2011. It was marked by ongoing conflict between and among Sunni Arabs, Shi'ite Arabs, and Kurds
-conflict between the first two has persisted nearly unabated in the aftermath of the end of major US involvement in 2011.
many of the countries in this realm did not exist until the 20th century.
States and borders were established, often by outsiders, and did not necessarily conform to the differences between groups of people on the ground.
-Although Islam is the dominant cultural influence on many peoples' lives and on the landscape in this realm
1. there are other non-Muslim elements in many cultures of this realm
2. Islam itself is not monolitic, and has multiple expressions that are not always in harmony with their different followers.
"Defining the Realm"
-the origins of the Sunni-Shi'i split in Islam
-collapsed in aftermath of World War 1 in 1918
-command a majority of the population in Northern Iraq, into adjacent of Iran, Turkey, and Syrira
-this realm contains two of the largest groups of people that have no recognized state: the Kurds and Palestinians
peaceful, political demonstration.
-unlike in a democratic society where protests and marches are common and generally harmless, in an autocratic society such demonstrations are often illegal, considered militant, and quickly extinguished by any means necessary.
-events began in Tunisia, on December 2010.
-eclipsed by what has come of it in Syria, a civil war and humanitarian crisis.
*what began as just a part of the larger revolution occurring across the realm, with objections to the country's leader and his regime, has today spiral into nothing short of a nightmare for the Syrian people, with millions displace and thousands massacred.
-a time of great optimism and a time of great violence.
-Cell phones, Facebook, Twitter = fueled the fire.
Sharia (sometimes, Shariah)
or Islamic law.
-as interpreted by Muslim extremists, is not only oppressive and strict, but also incompatible with freedom and democracy, as well as the practice of any other religion and observance of Islam.
*Muslim extremists see the secular world, and western cultural, as sinful and the root of all problems.
-By instituting the harsh, moral and legal code of Sharia, those acting in defiance receive physical punishments, most often flogging (or lashing), though more severe punishments are possible.
-like sharia, jihad can have different meanings depending on the intent.
-the struggle between right and wrong
*some believe right or wrong to be more personal and refer to individual actions: the struggles within one's own self. Others believe that this definition is too narrow and that the is not only within, but between obedient Muslims and all others, with obligation to protect Islam of the death.
-A majority believe the internal struggle is of primary importance and the focus should be on one's own faith and devotion, primarily through the Five Pillars of Islam
-military Jihad = holy war, may t times be necessary for self defense, as a form of punishment or retribution, and in cases of oppression and persectuion, but war for any other reason (to oppress others, acquire wealth or territory, and spread Islam) is not acceptable.
-water resources are a social, political, and economic concern and never far out of mind.
-Although it is so common in nature, it is the one fact that elevates the status of water as a resource to precious. It is also this one fact that can transform water into a political tool, used to manipulate, influence, and control populations and governments.
-the effect water has on the intra-realm governmental relationships
-the buildup of salts that remain once irrigation water evaporates
NASWA (in geographer speak: naz-wuh)
Southwest Asis = the un-Eurocentric locative term used to describe the region more commonly known as the Middle East.
Nation:a homogeneous group of people
States: political entity
Nation-state: a political entity the encompasses a homogeneous group of people.
*Nations original meaning: a group of people who felt they had common heritage (history, language, and culture). The desire of people with a common identity to have their territory; hence the rise of Polish, Hungarian, German, Italian, Irish, or other nationalisms.
*States: a political unit of territory that has area, a permanent population, a system of circulation, a degree of sovereignty (self-rule), and recognition by others.
*a nation-state: the ideal concept of political organization; a Hungary for Hungarians, for example.
-So, a nation is a group of people and a state is a political unit of territory (we could also call it a country).
**stateless nations: 1. feel themselvs to be a people with a common identity and culture
2. do not have a territory of their own to which they feel an attachment.
Although Islam is the dominant cultural influence on many peoples' lives and on the landscape in this realm
1. there are other non-Muslim elements in many cultures of this realm
2. Islam itself is not monolithic, and has multiple expressions that are not always in harmony with their different followrs.
colonies or 'mandates'
The year 2014 would be the year 1435 according to the Muslim calendar (which begins at the hejira, or the Prophet Muhammad's journey to Medina from Mecca that led to the establishment of the first Muslim community)
In Christian Europe, the period of time from the 1400s through the mid-1600s was also marked by a variety of violent conflicts over religion, starting with the growth of 'heresies' that were suppressed by thhe Church, to the Hussite Wars, to the Protestant Reformation itself to the devasting Thirty Years' War that claimed either directly or indirectly (through famine and disease and warfare) as much as 1/3 of the population of the Holy Roman Empire.
Thirty Years War
1618-1648; in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed.
this reminder points out that violent conflict between different religious donominations is nothing new.
For example, in Northern Ireland, violent conflict continued between Protestants and Catholics, followers of the same Christian faith who adhere to a relatively similar...
*not just about religious belief, more about civil rights for Catholics (discrimination in housing and employment, political influence and representation)
Belonging to one religious or the other was far more than an expression of personal devotion or doctrinal belief
it was a political act, whether or not it was intended it to be.
-the Persian empire made the Shi'a branch of Islam the faith of the territory under its control. When the boundaries of the states of what is now the country of Iraq were established, they included:
-a largely Shi'ite area in the south
-a predominantly Sunni area in the northwest;
-a Kurdish region in the north (as the text indicates, the Kurds, who constitute a distinct linguistic and cultural group, were divided into minority populations among Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Azerbaijan when those states were created in the 20th century.
*when the Sunni-based Ba'ath Party took control of the government, the other groups became largely excluded from any meaningful participation. The result was that neither the Kurds nor the Shi'ites felt loyalty to the Iraqi state, since it was in the control of "them" and it seemed bent on keeping any power from "us". The post-Iraq war government on the other hand is dominated by Shi'ites which after decades of sometimes brutal oppression, naturally makes many Sunnis feel threatened;
-about 4,000 square kilometers smaller than the third smallest state in the US (Connecticut) and has almost one million more people. The population consists of:
-Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic Christians (Greek Catholics from an autonomous church who use rites and practices in common with the Greek Orthodox, but retain what is termed "full communion" with Roman Catholic Church; Maronites are another such group)
-Sunni and Shi'a Muslims
-several pockets in the central and southeastern parts of the country of people known as the Druze
-follow a belief system that is described as both eclectic and distinctive, and do not allow conversation making them an example of an ethnic religion (as opposed to a universalizing religion like Christianity, Islam, or Buddhism, which seek or accept new members because their beliefs can be followed by all people)
-most of their religious practices remain secret - some even from members of their own community and known only to certain elites - contradicting many Muslim beliefs and traditions.
-played an important role in the founding of Lebanon as an independent country, and have continued to play an important role in shaping Lebanon's political landscape.
-Beit Jann is a village, predominantly a Druze community, located high upon Mt. Meron in northern Israel.
For decades, the President was a Maronite Christian and the Prime Minister was a Sunni Muslim: representation in Parliament was based on a 6:5 ration in favor of the Christian population
higher levels of fertility among Muslims coupled with higher levels of out-migration among Maronites contributed to the status quo being rejected, leading to the long civil war that wreaked so much damage to this beautiful country. Because of the Shi'ite population, Iran's interest (as the country with the largest Shi'ite population overall) and subsequent influence in Lebanon has grown, and they have (according to detractors) taken a proxy role in Lebanese politics through the Shi'a population and the organization Hezbollah.
Alawites (12% of Syria's population) - not really even considered
-they believed that Ali was the true successor of the Prophet Muhammad, but over time, elevated Ali to divine status himself, which the Shi'a never did.
-In the late 1960s, Alawites used this power base to overthrow the government in a coup. Hafex al-Assad, father of the current president, assumed power in 1970 and remained there until his death in 2000.
-Sunnis = majority of population, Alawite = political power (President Bashar al-Assad belongs to Alawites)
-Christian & Druze support Alawite
-Sunni Islamist rebel militia went door-to-door in a town called Adra in the central part of the country and killed Alawites and Druze because of both those groups' frequent support of the government and their deviations from Islam
-finding out who was who was easy for the killers, since the Assad government required all Syrians to carry an identity card indicating the group to which they belonged - a practice no doubt intended at its inception to benefit thse minority groups
-one of the most heavily censored states in the realm.
*Young boys spray painted a wall with anti-government sentiments, which led to their arrest. ~20 people, mostly children were detained, questioned, and beaten. (Bashar al Assad REFUSED to step down)
-brought changes: promise greater political and social freedoms and granting the stateless Kurds citizenship, attempted to appease Muslims, announcing the closing of a casino, giving a teacher who had been dismissed for wearing a head scarf her job back, and allowing the formation of an Islamic political party and TV network.
-By the time 2012 arrives, there are 5,000 casualties and more to come. Chemical weapons, random and unprovoked air raids on civilians.
-Rebel groups, now active in the fighting, kill several top officials, while others defect from the crumbling government, which is starved of money as sanctions set in and oil production plummets.
The Free Syrian Army
the military force fighting under the Supreme Military Council (and supported by the Syrian National Coalition)
-they are an operative made up largely of former Syrian military personnel and defectors, who simply do not have the appropriate training, supplies, or weapons.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS)
-jihadi rebels are a well-equipped third party to the war. These groups have both the training and weapons necessary to effectively engage in guerilla warfare and the economics resources necessary to sustain their efforts.
-ISIS 2014 - declared an Islamic state from Aleppo in norther Syria through Diyala province and eastern Iraq
-common enemy: western culture.
-hope is to create a caliphate (Islamic empire that will gain the upper hand over free, secular states)
Putin is PSYCHO and supports Syria PSYCHO
A Plea for Caution From Russia
-could be cold war related.
In May of 2015, the refugees Syrian refugee count (that is, those registered with the United Nations Refugee Agency)
neared 4 million, with many more awaiting their registration.
-a majority of refugees were living in camps near Lebanon, with large numbers in Jordan and Turkey as well.
-doubled since 2013, no sign of stopping.
-United Nations pleas for increase funding for their basic needs
each has demographic characteristics, religious doctrine, the nature of identity of both Self and Other, political power relations, colonial history, and spatial patterns of settlements and residence.
December 2010 - Tunisia
a demonstration set off a period of civil unrest that swept across the realm.
-Among the long list of grievances protesters had were rising food prices, high unemployment, poor living conditions, and a general lack of human rights and freedoms.
exists through the Saharan and Sahelian states of the African continent.
-where culture and religion grade from non-Islamic in the south (transitioning to the remainder of Subsaharan Africa) to a Muslim-dominated north (identifying with and transitioning to Southwest Asia -- again the are most often referred to as the "Middle East")
-experiencing Islamic revivalism
deepening religious tensions Muslim extremists and Muslims and non-Muslims alike
Egypt has failed to install a stable, democratic government. Its first democratically elected leader following the fall of military dictator Hosni Mubarak was forced out by the military in July of 2013, following protests of the country's new constitution. The following December, as a new constitution that gave greater power to the country's military and judiciary seemed destined to pass, some speculated that one of the country's highest ranking military leaders would be a leading candidate in the country;s next elections
Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Yemen
Protests and Governmental Changes
Western Sahara, Morocco, Palestinian Territories, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman
Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Iraq
Mauritania, Saudi Aravia, Djibouti
Related Crises, but are outside of the Arab world
Mali, Israel, Iran
-over 30 million have been affected by the conflict, 80% of them under the age of 14
-over 1 million children from Syria are now refugees in neighboring countries - this is the equivalent of more than 1 in 5 primary school children in England.
-Future and childhood at risk
Population (majority) near WATER
-places that receive precipitation (coastal/orographic) or have access to surface (rivers/lakes) or groundwater (aquifers) resources
The realm's water resources have been tapped, diverted, channeled, and redistributed to areas in need
small supply, the demand causes many conflicts
clean water is a highly valued commodity.
-in some places, it is a luxury that many cannot afford either because they do not have access to wells or water supplies or because it simply is not there.
North Africa/Southwest Asia
the most severely water-stressed realm
-typically overdraw their national renewable water account and borrow from groundwater stocks to make up the difference
-most of these countries have some of the highest population growth rates in the world.
-countries in this realm withdraw 51% of their renewable water resources strictly for agricultural purposes.
-contains most of the world's petroleum reserves,
A list of major river basins and the countries that vie to control the waters:
-Jordan River Basin: Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria
-Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys: Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, but also Iran (specifically Tigris)
-Amu-Darya and the Syr-Darya River valleys that feed into the Aral Sea: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan
-Nile River Valley: Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, Egypt
-Caspian Sea and Kara-Bogaz-Gol: Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Azerbaijan.
Not only does it move through Earth's natural spheres (the water or hydrologic cycle) and between phases (liquid, solid, and gas), but also over landscapes and across borders.
A border dispute over the Shatt al-Arab, a waterway that empties into the Persian Gulf, was one of the primary causes of the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war
-resulted in hundreds of thousands (soldiers and civilians alike) dead due to chemical warfare and air strikes.
-In 1988, Iraq agreed in part to United Nations resolution 598, which called for a cease fire, the withdrawl of troops, and return of POWs were periodically exchanged between the two countries with the final prisoner exchange taking place in 2003.
Aral Sea: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan
-mid to late 1800s: a worldwide need for cotton motivated countries to grow cotton in new and existing fields.
-much of the cotton production in Asia was centered in Turkestan region
-Over the years, espeically during the Soviet-era, irrigated cotton production in the region increased to the point where rivers leading from the Aral Sea were diverted and tapped in some cases to to the point of extinction.
*remaining water was SEVERELY contaminated with chemicals, herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers.
-Since the 1960s, the sea has lost significant surface area and volume.
-damn built between the northern and southern part of the Aral Sea (completed in 2005) was basically a death sentence for the southern Aral Sea, judged to be beyond saving.
-Anthrax Island: a former Soviet military installation where steel cases containing hundreds of tons of the biological agent anthrax are buried below the island's surface
-located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modernday sourthern Iraq, is the home of a group of people often referred to as the Marsh Arabs. Been living in the marshes for 5,000 years.
-early 1990s - Saddam Hussein ordered that the marshes be drained so Shiite Arab resistors thought to be living in the marshes could be contained.
-in the early summer of 2003, however, the marshes were reflooded as the upstream dams and leeves were broken. Although the returning flood waters have brought life (plants, animals, and people) back to the marshes, many obstacles to recreating ecologically healthy marshlands remain
The Nile River: Crossing many borders
-crosses through nine countries.
-the white nile flows from Lake Victoria in Uganda and the Blue Nile from the Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands, before the two join in Khartoun, Sudan.
*The Nile and its tributaries are the primary source of drinking and irrigation water in the region, particularly for Sudan and Egypt, and also serve as major transportation links. The Nile basin is home to many people, but also many dams, the most notable being the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.
-the Nile River Valley and Delta comprise less than 5% of Egypt's land area, but provide a home to roughly 97% of the country's population.
-Backed by the World Bank, the Nile Basin Initiative was formed to, "achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through the equitable utilization of, and benefit from, the common Nile Basin water resources"
-Demanding equality, Ethiopia , Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kanya agreed to the Nile Basin Accord in May 2010, which threatened to end that area of control and give rights to the countries upstream.
*Ethiopia opened the gates of the Tana Beles Dam on the Blue Nile.
-Following Sudan's independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom in 1956, allocation and control of the Nile River water was divided between Egypt and Sudan by the Nile Waters Treaty signed in 1959.
In an arid land facing issues of development, economic growth, food production, and drinking water supplies (not to mention sanitation and other household use),
hydropolitics are inevitable