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180 terms

CPR final

last 3 tests
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the citizen responders first step in an emergency is
recognizing that an emergency exists
true or false: the most important thing you can do in an emergency is give first aid or CPR
false
reasons that people hesitate or do not act after recognizing an emergency are called
barriers to action
list 3 ways how bystanders could help you at the scene of an emergency even if thy do not know first aid?
1. call 9-1-1
2. clear the scene
3. give an valuable information, such as, what happened or if they know the person, their medical history.
the correct order of the three basic steps you should take in handling an emergency with an adult victim are
check the scene and victim, call 9-1-1, then care for the victim
how can bystanders be helpful to you while you are checking the scene?
they can assist by calling 9-1-1 ir retrieving first aid supplies
true or false: calling 9-1-1 or the local emergency number is the first step you should take in any emergency
false
one piece of information that is necessary to give the EMS call taker is
the exact address or location of the injured victim(s)
you come upon the scene of an emergecny. there is an unconscious adult and a conscious child. how would you obtain consent to care for both of these victims?
Adult- you have consent already since they are unconscious.
child- ask their parent(s), if they aren't around you have consent.
an unconscious victim
is assumed to give consent to be cared for.
pathogen
a disease-causing agent (also called a microorganism).
injury
damage that occurs when the body is subjected to an external force, such as a blow
first aid
immediate care given to a victim of injury or sudden illness
emergency
a situation requiring immediate attention
sudden illness
a physical condition requiring immediate medical attention
describe two steps you can take to minimize the risk of disease transmission between you and the victim.
1. wear disposable gloves
2. cover your cuts before giving help
in general, good samaritan laws protect
citizen responders who willingly give first aid without accepting anything in return
why is it important not to move a victim from the scene unless there is immediate danger?
moving a victim can lead to further injury
list 3 situations in which an emergency move of a victim is necessary
1. fire
2. gas leak
3. flooding
which two emergency moves may be used for an unconscious victim?
pack-strap carry and clothes drag
which emergency move is most appropriate for moving a victim with a head, neck or back injury
clothes drag
the body cavity that contains the lungs is the
thoracic cavity
the body cavity in which organs are the most vulnerable to injury because of a lack of protection from surrounding bones is the
abdominal cavity
the beat of the heart felt at the neck or wrist is called a
pulse
true or false: brain cells, like other cells in your body, will grow back if they are damaged
false
respiratory system (function)
supplies the body with oxygen through breathing
musculoskeletal system (function)
supports and protects most body cavities
nervous system (function)
carries electrical impulses throughout the body
integumentary system (function)
protects the body from pathogens
circulatory system (function)
transports oxygen throughout the body
if the respiratory system fails, which other body system will eventually fail?
all body systems
an easy way to tell if a victim is conscious and shows signs of life is to
ask the victim a question
list the 5 conditions that are considered life threatening
1. no pulse
2. not breathing/trouble breathing
3. heart attack
4. unconcious
5. external bleeding
the check step in check, call, care is a check for safety and a check for
consciousness
true or false: a conscious victim who has a heartbeat and signs of life can have a life-threatening emergency
true
a victim who is unconscious and lying on his or her back could stop breathing if his or her
tongue falls to the back of his or her throat
open an unconscious victims airway by
pushing down on the forehead with one hand while using the other hand to pull up on the bony part of the jaw, lifting the chin.
true or false: a victim whose heart has stopped beating will also have stopped breathing
true
a person has been injured in a bicycle crash. you decide to help. the victim is conscious and appears to be cooperative. you identify yourself and gain the victims consent. what three important questions should you ask the victim?
1. what happened
2. any allergies
3. any medical conditions
you are alone with an unconscious victim. you must leave the victim to call 9-1-1. describe what you should do before leaving the victim.
put the victim on their side. one arm will be stretched out under their head. the other arm will be placed underneath their head, kind of like they are laying down to sleep. one leg will be bent. their head must be facing down when laying on their arms, incase they begin to vomit while you're gone.
how does the body initially respond to severe bleeding?
the body attempts to maintain an oxygen-rich blood flow to the vital organs
severe bleeding is life threatening because
too little oxygen is carried to the vital organs
you are caring for a victim who is bleeding from a wound on one arm. you have applied direct pressure to the wound, and placed a pressure bandage on the wound. unfortunately, the bleeding continues and the pressure bandage is now soaked with blood. what should you do?
apply an additional pressure bandage to absorb the blood and elevate the wound.
identify the correct order of steps when caring for a victim who is bleeding.
elevate the wound, apply direct pressure to the wound, apply a pressure bandage, then (if necessary) compress an artery at a pressure point.
you are caring for a victim who is bleeding, but you do not have a pair of disposable gloves to wear. what are TWO ways you could improvise to protect yourself while giving care?
1. have the victim hold/ put pressure on their wound.
2. cover any cuts you have with a bandage and make sure to wash your hands immediatly after giving care.
some of the signals of internal bleeding include soft tissues that are tender, swollen or hard; rapid or weak pulse and anxiety or restlessness. what are THREE other signals of internal bleeding?
1. nausea
2. bruising
3. excessive thirst
true or false: a severe headache may be signal of internal bleeding
true
you are caring for a victim of an automobile accident. the victim is complaining of pain in her abdomen, nausea and extreme thirst. she also has a pulse that is rapid and weak. what might you suspect is happening with this victim?
internal bleeding
one of the major functions of blood is to
help maintain a constant body temperature
arterial bleeding
bright red, spurting blood
venous bleeding
dark red, flowing blood
external bleeding
visible blood in any amount
internal bleeding
discoloration of the skin
capillary bleeding
oozing blood
true or false: shock occurs when an adequate amount of fluid is circulating to the vital organs.
false
which of the following is most likely to cause shock?
a severe allergic reaction
which is a signal of shock?
a rapid, weak pulse
list THREE common signals of shock
1. dazed, confused
2. moist looking skin
3. rapid, weak pulse
minor bleeding, such as that from a small cut or scrape, usually stops by itself within about how many minutes?
5-10
why do you elevate the legs of a person who is in shock?
to help keep blood flow towards vital organs (around 12 inches)
why does the heart beat faster when a person is in shock?
to compensate for inadequate blood flow
you should call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number for a person in shock
always because first aid alone cannot control shock
abrasion
skin rubbed or scraped away
avulsion
skin partially torn away from the skin
puncture wound
skin closes around a penetrating object
laceration
skin cut and usually bleeding freely
amputation
skin completely severed from the body
an occlusive dressing may be made from
clean plastic wrap
proper care for a closed wound may include applying
direct pressure, elevation and ice
major open wound
cover with dressing and pressure bandage
a severed body part
wrap in a dressing, place in plastic bag and place on ice
a minor heat burn
cool the area to prevent further damage
minor open wound
wash with soap and water
an embedded object
place bulky dressing around the wound to stabilize
when a victim has an embedded object, you should control severe bleeding by
bandaging dressings around the object
a student was playing a sport in gym class. she forgot, however, to remove a pair of large hoop earrings she was wearing. during the game, an earring was caught in another players finger and the girl suffered a completely avulsed earlobe. how would you care for the avulsed lobe?
wrap the earlobe in a clean dressing, place it in a plastic bag and keep it on ice.
which type of burn may directly affect the heart?
electrical or radiation burn
a burn that only involves the top layer of skin is classified as a
superficial burn
a full-thickness burn
may destroy nerves and muscles
true or false: you can typically judge the severity of a burn by the pain the victim feels
false
list THREE situations in which you would consider a burn to be critical
1. medical professionals are needed
2. if there are entrance/exit wounds
3. you can see the white tissue
you have a severe cut on your knee. after a few days, you see red lines or streaks at the site of the wound. what is happening to the wound?
the wound has become infected
heat burn (appropiate care)
cool the area with water or cool compresses
electrical burn (appropiate care)
cover exit wounds with dry sterile dressings
chemical burn (appropiate care)
flush the area with a large amount of water
radiation burn (appropiate care)
cool the burns and protect from further sun exposure
a chemical burn to the eye should be cared for by
flushing the eye with running water until EMS personnel arrive
which is the first step you should take in checking for burns?
check to see if the scene is safe
burn (definition)
an injury to the skin or other body tissues cause by heat, chemical, electricity or radiation
closed wound (definition)
an injury that does not break the skin in which soft tissue damage occurs beneath the skin
superficial burn (definition)
involving only the top layer of the skin
wound (definition)
an injury to soft tissue
open wound (definition)
an injury resulting in a break in the skins surface
soft tissues include the
skin, muscles and fat
the layer of skin that contains nerves, hair roots, sweat glands, and blood vessels is called the
dermis
_____ makes up the largest segment of the bodys soft tissue
muscle
an open fracture occurs when
a fracture involves torn or penetrated skin
a person who will not or cannot move an injured joint is most likely suffering from a
dislocation
strain
the stretching and tearing of muscles and tendons
dislocation
the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint
sprain
the stretching and tearing of ligaments and other soft tissues at a joint
fracture
a break or disruption in bone tissue
true or false: the amount of swelling is a reliable signal of the severity of an injury
false
which of the following would tend to suggest a serious musculoskeletal injury?
the loss of circulation or sensation in an extremity
list THREE signals of a serious musculoskeletal injury
1. discoloration
2. deformation
3. person heard a pop or snap
generally, musculoskeletal injuries are not life threatening. you should call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediatly, however, if which one of the following conditions exist?
you see or suspect a fracture or dislocation
a friend has been playing softball and is now complaining of pain in his shoulder. you do not believe that there is a fracture or dislocation and there does not appear to be any reason to call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number, but you still want to help your friend. what can you recommend to your friend to help ease his pain.
RICE. rest, immobilize, cold and elevate.
in general, you should elevate a suspected musculoskeletal injury about the level of the heart. you should not elevate an injury when
you suspect a fracture or dislocation
a splint is a device that maintains an injured part in place if the person must be moved. to be effective a splint for a suspected broken bone should
include the joints above and below the injury site
true or false: you should move or straighten a limb before appling a splint, since leaving a broken limb in an unusual position can cause the victim addictional pain
false
you suspect that Mary has seriously sprained her knee. to care for mary, you decide to apply a splint to her leg. the splint should
include the bones about and below the knee.
the stong, cordlike fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones are called
tendons
one function of the skeleton is to
protect vital organs and other soft tissues
the fibrous bands that hold bones together at joints are called
ligaments
osteoporosis is
a gradual, progressive weakening of bone
a joint is
formed by the ends of two or more bones coming together
true or false: joints that move more freely are more prone to injury
true
you are playing soccer when a player on the other team falls. he tries to break the fall with an outstretched arm. when he gets up, the player is holding his left arm close to his body and is complaining of shoulder pain. how would you initially respond to this suspected shoulder injury?
allow the victim to continue holding his arm in the most comfortable position
the best way to immobilize an upper arm injury is by
using a sling and binding it to the chest
you suspect a forearm injury. which two joints should you immobilize with a splint?
elbow and wrist
which is the proper order for applying a rigid splint to an injured wrist after you have controlled any bleeding?
check the fingers for feeling, warmth and color. pad the splint; apply the splint; secure the splint; put the arm in a sling; secure the arm; check the fingers for feeling, warmth and color.
a characteristic deformity associated with a fractured femur is the _______ turning of the lower extremity
outward
the lower extremeties include which of the following body parts
tibia and metatarsals
a victim who has an injured femur is likely to exhibit signals of shock because
a fractured femur can result in serious bleeding
a person who has fallen is sitting on the ground complaining of pain in the lower left leg. someone else has already called 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. how could you help care for this person while waiting for EMS personnel to arrive.
have the victim rest in the most comfortable position
if the person must be moved the best way to immobilize an ankle or foot injurey is with a
soft splint
when splinting an injured body part, you should
support the injured part in the position you find it
the first and most important signal of a serious head injury is
an altered level of consciousness
you can consider the possibility of a serious head, neck or back injury by
checking the scene and thinking about the forces involved in the injury
a technique used to minimize movement of the head and neck is called
manual stabilization
you perform the manual stabilization technique by placing
your hands on both sides of the victims head and supporting the head in this position
name TWO situations when you would not move the victims head in line with the body
1. victim is in too much pain and cant move their head
2. obvious deformity
nosebleeds can be controlled by
pinching the nostrils and sitting with the head slightly forward
which is the best way to remove a small foreign body from the eye?
blink the eye several times, allowing tears to remove the foreign body
you approach the scene of a vehicle accident. the driver of one vehicle appears to have been thrown violently against the steering wheel of the car. you suspect that the driver might have a closed chest wound. list TWO signals this victim might have
1. trouble breathing
2. coughing up blood
describe the care you would give to a victim who has an open abdominal wound with an abdominal organ protruding throught the wound
1. call 9-1-1
2. place a moist cloth over the wound
an aura may be experienced before a person
has a seizure
which type of sudden illness may have signals that include weakness on one side of the body and pupils of unequal size?
stroke
why does a person faint?
blood flow to the brain is momentarily reduced
which describes the difference in the care you would give to a person who is experiencing insulin shock from one who is in a diabetic coma?
the basic care is the same: call 9-1-1 and if the victim is conscious, you may give foods or fluids with sugar.
a condition in which too little sugar is in the bloodstream is called
hypoglycemia
a condition in which too much sugar is in the bloodstream is called
hyperglycemia
what is the best care you can give to someone having a seizure?
protect the person from injury and maintain an open airway
the four ways that a poison can enter a persons body are
through the lungs, by being swallowed, through the skin or by being injected
inhaled poison
a lawn fertilizer/pesticide spreader
ingested poison
uncooked shellfish
absorbed poison
kerosene space heater
injected poison
a bee or wasp
all of the following factors might influence the severity of a poisoning except
the time of day the victim was poisoned
a victim of an ingested poison should be encouraged to vomit
only if advised to do so by a medical professional
a poisoning victim who develops hives, itching or burning skin or eyes and rapid or trouble breathing might be experiencing
anaphylactic shocl
a victim who dies from anaphylaxis usually does so as a result of
severely impaired breathing
animal or human bite (signal)
a tetnus infection
spider bite (signal)
a blister that increases in size and leaves a black scar
bee or wasp sting (signal)
a venom sac attached to a stinger at the wound site
tick bite (signal)
a rash that has a bulls-eye appearance
snake bite (signal)
one or two distinct puncture wounds
snake bite (care)
keep the affected area lower than the heart
jellyfish sting (care)
soak the affected area with vinegar
tick bite (care)
remove the embedded insect with a fine-tipped tweezer
bee sting (care)
scrape the stinger away with a plastic card
sea urchin sting (care)
soak the affected area in hot water
in areas where ticks are known to carry Rocky Mountain spotted fever, why is it important to have the victim of a tick bite treated by medical professionals?
because if the tick was infected and the victim was left untreated, they could die from kidney failure.
infections from human bites are caused by
bacteria in the saliva
what is the best way you can prevent insect of tick bites while hiking in the woods?
wear long-sleeved shirt and long pants
the most widely used and abused depressant in the united states is
alcohol
the most widely used illicit drug in the united states is
marijuana
drugs like ecstasy, belong to a category of substances known as
designer drugs
depressant
affects the central nervous system to slow down physical and mental activity
hallucinogen
affects mood, sensation, thought, emotion and self-awareness
medication
given therapeutically to prevent or treat the effects of a disease or condition
narcotic
a drug that is given to relieve pain
stimulant
affects the central nervous system to increase mental and physical activity
aspirin is used to relieve minor pain and reduce fever. when it is overused, aspirin can
cause inflammation of the stomach and impair normal blood clotting
a designer drug is
a chemical variation of another substance, such as a narcotic or amphetamine
the easiest way to prevent the accidental misuse of a medicinal substance is to
read the product information and use it only as directed
what is the difference between substance abuse and substance misuse
Abuse: intentional. knowingly take too much of a drug/medication.
Misuse: may be accidental. read label wrong. take too much of a drug
why do seizures occur? (EC)
the electrical activity of the brain becomes irregular
______ are so highly addictive that they are not available except by prescription (EC)
narcotics
list THREE factors that can contribute to substance abuse (EC)
1. family life (if child is abused/neglected)
2. peer pressure. starts as peer pressure, then person makes abusing substances part of their day.
3. history of substance abuse