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Favor-seeking business-people and corrupt politicians

Caused numerous scandals during President Grant's administration.

The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast

Forced Boss Tweed out of power and into jail.

Upright Republicans' disgust with Grant administration scandals

Led to the formation of the Liberal Republican party in 1872.

The economic crash of the mid-1870s

Caused unemployment, railroad strikes, and a demand for "cheap money".

Local cultural, moral, and religious differences

Created fierce partisan competition and high voter turnouts, even though the parties agreed on most national issues.

The Compromise of 1877 that settled the disputed Hayes-Tilden election

Led to the withdrawal of troops from the South and the virtual end of federal efforts to protect black rights there.

White workers' resentment of Chinese labor competition

Caused anti-Chinese violence and restrictions against Chinese immigration

Public shock and Garfield's assassination by Guiteau

Helped ensure passage of the Pendleton Actq

The 1890s depression and the drain of gold from the federal treasury

Induced Grover Cleveland to negotiate a secret loan from K.P. Morgan's banking syndicate.

The inability of Populist leaders to overcome divisions between white and black farmers

Led to failure of the third party revolt in the South and a growing racial backlash.

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