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A&P2 Respiratory System Chapter 22
Terms in this set (74)
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
What four distinct processes must happen for respiration to occur?
Pulmonary Ventilation, External Respiration, Transport of Respiratory Gases, Internal Respiration
What is an aka for Pulmonary ventilation?
What happens in Pulmonary ventilation?
moving air into and out of the lungs
What happens in External respiration?
gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
What happens in Transport?
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues
What happens in Internal respiration?
gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
What does the respiratory system include?
nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and their smaller branches and lungs
What do the lungs contain?
terminal air sacs called alveoli
What two zones are the respiratory system divided into?
respiratory zone and conducting zone
What is the Respiratory zone?
site of gas exchange, consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
What is the Conducting zone?
includes all other respiratory structures (nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea) that provide rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange
What else does the Conducting zone do?
clean, humidify, and warm the entering air
What is the only externally visible part of the respiratory system?
What two regions is the nose divided into?
external nose and the internal nasal cavity
Where does air enter into the nasal cavity through?
external nares (nostrils)
What lies in and posterior to the external nose?
internal nasal cavity
What is the internal nasal cavity divided by?
a midline nasal septum
The internal nasal cavity opens posteriorly into the nasal pharynx via what?
posterior nasal apertures (aka internal nares aka choanae "funnels")
What is the floor of the internal nasal cavity formed by?
the hard plate (anteriorly) and the soft palate (posteriorly)
What is the nasal cavity superior to the nares?
What are the hairs that filter coarse particles from inspired air called?
What lines the superior nasal cavity?
What does the Olfactory mucosa contain?
What lines the balance of the nasal cavity?
Glands secrete mucus containing lysozymes to help do what?
What happens to inspired air?
it's cleaned, humidified, warmed
What protrudes medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
Superior, medial, and inferior conchae
In the superior, medial, and inferior conchae the mucosal area is?
What do the conchaes do?
enhance air turbulence and help filter air
What is the groove inferior to each conchae called?
What are paranasal sinuses?
sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity
What lightens the skull and help to warm and moisten the air?
What is an aka for Pharynx?
What does the Pharynx connect superiorly?
Nasal cavity and mouth
What does the Pharynx connect inferiorly?
Larynx and esophagus
What are the three regions the Pharynx is divided into?
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Larygnopharynx
What lies posterior to the nasal cavity and superior to the level of the soft palate?
What is the Nasopharynx strictly an?
When swallowing what moves superiorly to close off the nasopharynx to prevent food form entering the nasal cavity?
soft palate and uvula
What lies high on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx?
pharyngeal tonsil aka ademoids
What extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis?
Oropharynx opens to the oral cavity via an archway called what?
The oropharynx serves as a common passageway for what?
food and air
What tonsils lie in the lateral wall of the fauces?
What tonsil covers the base of the tongue?
The laryngopharynx serves as a what?
common passageway for food and air
What lies posterior to the upright epiglottis?
Where do the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge?
at the larynx
What is the laryngopharynx continues with?
The larynx is also what?
the voice box
The larynx attaches to the hyoid bone and is continues with what?
How many functions does the larynx have?
The larynx provides?
a patent airway
The larynx acts as a switching mechanism to route air and food into what?
the proper channels
What functions in voice production?
What are the cartilages of the larynx made up of?
hyaline cartilage (except for the epiglottis)
What is the epiglottis?
a flexible, spoon-shaped elastic cartilage that covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing
What is an aka for trachea?
The trachea extends from the larynx into what?
What marks the end of the trachea?
What marks the beginning of the trachea?
the right and left primary bronchi
Each primary bronchus runs obliquely into what?
the hilus of the lung on its own side
Inside the lung, each bronchus subdivide into what?
secondary aka lobar bronchi
What bronchi supplies the lobes of the lungs?
How many lobes are in the right lung?
How many lobes are in the left lung?
How many secondary bronchi are in the right lung?
How many secondary bronchi are in the left lung?
What do the secondary bronchi branch into?
tertiary aka segmental bronchi
What do the tertiary bronchi divide into?
smaller and smaller bronchi
What are the smaller of the branches?
What are the tiniest?
What is the branching network known as?
the bronchial or respiratory tree
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