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An inoffensive or mild expression given in place of one that might offend

Linguistic Relativity

The theory that people from different language communities perceive the world differently


The most difficult nonverbal cue to interpret, refers to body motions that help us feel at ease in conversations. Examples could include playing with a pencil, touching your hair, or playing with a ring

What concrete words represent

Tangible things


The subjective meaning of a word; what a word suggests because of feelings or associations it evokes


The objective meaning of a word


A figure of speech in which a word or phrase relates one object or idea to another object or idea that are not commonly linked together


The use of nonverbal cues to describe or accent verbal cues


Tactile, or touch, communication; one of the most basic forms of communication


An ideal group consists of this many members

Primary Groups

A group that focuses on social and interpersonal relationships


The attraction that group members feel for each other and willingness to stick together

Autocratic Leader

A leader with complete control

Laissez-faire Leader

A leader who gives up control


Asks listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of attitude, belief or value by beginning something


Asking listeners to continue to perform a behavior

Question of Fact

Asks what is true or false

Question of Value

Asks whether something is good or bad, desirable or undesirable


Audience's perception of your trustworthiness and ethics


Appeal or attractiveness of the speaker that the audience perceives

Appeal to Needs

Moves people to action by calling on their physical and psychological requirements and desires

Logical Appeal

Moves people to action through the use of evidence and proof

Emotional Appeal

Moves people to action by playing on their feelings

Deductive Reasoning

Moves from general info to specific conclusion

Inductive Reasoning

reasoning from the specific to the general

Muted Group Theory

A theory suggesting status and power are linked and that women, ethnic minorities, and out-groups have little voice, they lack the power of appropriate language


A symbol standing for the object or concept it names


Words whose meanings cannot be understood by the ordinary usage


The study of meaning, or the association of words w/ideas, feelings, and contexts


A misunderstanding that occurs between a sender and a receiver because of the symbolic nature of language


The neglect of individual difference and over emphasis of similartites


Technique to reduce indiscrimination


Form of indexing, sorting acc. to time

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Explanation how thought influences our reality and how though process influenced by language

Verbal Immediacy

Identifies and projects the speakers feelings and makes the message more relevant tot he listener


The study of the use of space and of distance between communicating individuals


Study of how people perceive structure, and use time as communication

Functional Approach

Using more than one nonverbal message at a time to look for meaning


A fallacy that attacks a person rather than the argument itself

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