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The first Romans to reach China's court of Emperor Huan were envoys of which emperor?

Marcus Aurelius

The economic wealth of the early Roman state was based on


The center of political action in the Roman Republic was

the Senate

In Roman society

the father's word was law in his household

Which statement is true about Roman women?

They exercised influence over husbands and sons

How did the early Romans view the natural world?

As filed with numerous invisible shapeless forces called numina

The covenant of protection between the gods and the Romans was called

pax deorum

Which of the following was NOT a contributing factor to Roman expansion?

the desire to acquire buffer zones protecting them from attack by enemies.

A significant difference in Roman expansion versus Greek was that Romans:

extended citizenship in degrees to most conquered populations

For a period of over 60 years, Rome fought a war of expansion with which people?


Two protracted and bloody wars against the Caarthagians were important because

Rome won control of the western Mediterranean

During the Republic, Romans managed their imperial territories by

establishing a provincial administration and sending a Roman senator to oversee matters

As the numbers of independent farmers declined in the later Republic, Italian landowners increasingly turned to

inexpensive slaves

What factor caused a decrease in small farms in the Late Roman Republic?

The growth of latifundia and a shift to nonstaple crops

The emperor responsible for the reorganization of the Roman government after 31 BCE was


The main reason for the decline of the Roman Republic was

military leaders with armies loyal to them rather than to the state.

Under the Principate, Roman law

came largely from the emperor himself

One of the factors that most helped the growth of commerce was:

the implementation of the "pax romana" or roman peace

One of the most enduring consequences of the ROman Empire has been the

Romanization of the western Mediterranean

Before 212 BCE, many people living outside Italy became Roman citizens...

after serving lengthy terms of military service

The circumstance surrounding Jesus' ministry and acclamation by his followers as the messiah was

the Roman occupation of Judaea

How is the career of Paul an example of the "cosmopolitan" nature of the Roman empire?

He was able to use benefits of Roman citizenship, roads, and cities to spread Christianity

Why was becoming Christian considered an act of disloyalty in the Roman Empire?

Christians could not worship the emperor as a deity

Who were NOT among the earliest converts to Christianity?

urban merchants

The engineering expertise of the Romans is seen in all of these except:

gothic cathedrals

Starting with the reign of Augustus, the Roman army was reorganized and redeployed to

shift from an offensive to a defensive strategy

The most visible symptom of Rome's "third-century crisis" was the

frequent change of rulers

What was the reason for the economic decline in the third century CE?

debasing of coinage by the emperors

Who reformed Rome in the third century CE and saved it from its decline?


The conversion to Christianity of which Roman emperor ushered in a time of tolerance, acceptance, and eventual dominance of Christianity?


What city became the new imperial capital of the Roman Empire in 324 CE?


The competition among states in the Warring States Period resulted in

the creation of the first empire under the QIn state

In an effort to increase his power, Shi Huangdi cracked down on


Which of the following was NOT a tactic used to re-centralize power under the Qin?

a return to Confucianist values

Because of the influence of Confucian ethics, Chinese values emphasized

obedience and proper conduct

One of the great construction projects of Shi Huang-di was:

connection of walls which ultimately made up The Great Wall

What was buried with the emperor Shi Huang-di in his elaborate tomb?

statues of his soldier

The Confucian view of proper female behavior was exemplified by the

three submissions

It was customary for young brides in China to

live with their husbands family

The Qin ruler took the title Shi Huangdi, which meant

"First Emperor"

Which is NOT one of the reasons for the fall of the Qin Empire?

Incorporation in the empire of different ethnicities

The well planned urban capital of the Han dynasty was


How did Gaozu deal with the Xiongnu confederation threat?

he adopted a policy of appeasement

In what way did Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty significantly differ from previous emperors?

He was ambitious in exploring and conquering more territory

The important Han innovations include the development of

the horse collar, the watermill, and the crossbow

The leading export commodity of China during the Han was


Which of the following is NOT generally considered a contributing factor to the fall of the Han Empire?

The subversive ideas of Buddhism

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