SMH, Waves, and Sound
Terms in this set (85)
Simple Harmonic Motion
Periodic motion where the net force on the object is a restoring force proportional to its displacement. Aka object wanna return to center
What energies are involved in simple harmonic motion?
Kinetic and potential
maximum and minimum displacement from equilibrium
Displacement in simple harmonic motion is _____.
Amount of time for one full back and forth motion (unit in seconds)
Number of back and forth motions in a second
Unit for frequency
Formula for frequency
f = 1/T
Qualitative SHM analyzes motion at these three key points.
Positive amplitude, negative amplitude, equilibrium
Qualitative SHM analyzes these five characteristics
Negative Amplitude characteristics
Kinetic Energy: 0
Potential Energy: max
Kinetic Energy: max
Potential Energy: 0
Kinetic Energy: 0
Potential Energy: max
A position vs. time graph of SHM yields a ______.
sine or cosine wave
Traveling wave is _________ that _________.
simple harmonic motion, moves
What moves in a travelling wave?
peak of a wave, positive amplitude
bottom of wave, negative amplitude
center of the wave
Distance from crest to crest or trough to trough
Particle movement perpendicular to wave motion
Particle motion is parallel to the wave motion
Material or substance wave travels through
single back and forth motion
Repeated and periodic back and forth motion
Most waves are _____.
Electromagnetic waves are _____.
Sound waves are _____.
Compression is the point in the medium of _____ waves where the particles are _____.
longitudinal waves, squeezed together
Rarefaction is the point in the medium of _____ where the particles are _____.
longitudinal waves, spaced farther apart
Compression and rarefaction are to longitudinal waves as _____ and _____ are to transverse waves
Wave speed, or the velocity of the wave is controlled by
The speed of sound through air is ____ at room temperature (20 C).
The speed of sound is fastest in _____.
The speed of sound is slowest in _____.
The speed of the wave on a guitar string increases as _____ increases.
Wave Speed Equation Definition
Relates the speed of the wave to its wavelength and its frequency
Wave Speed Equation Formula
velocity = frequency*wavelength
one oscillation covers one _____.
_____ does not move, so when drawing waves it is visualized over time.
Waves have an axis of movement and are visualized in two different formats
Displacement vs. time (SHM)
Displacement vs. position
Displacement vs. Time graphs are used to visualize the situation of a ______ wave.
A displacement vs. time graph maps the position of _____ in the medium over time
a single point
Displacement vs. time graphs can be used to calculate _____.
Not wavelength (unless given speed)
In case of longitudinal waves, the y-axis represents displacement in the _____.
Displacement vs. Position are used to
Observe the entire wave and show displacement of all the points
Displacement vs. position graphs are used to calculate _____.
Not period/frequency, unless speed is given.
Displacement vs position is the same as
Wavelength vs amplitude
when energies of two waves collide and their amplitudes are added
When two or more waves collide
When the collision results in a larger amplitude
When the collision results in a smaller amplitude
Point of maximum constructive interference; greatest movement
Point of maximum destructive interference, no movement
The principle of superposition says that the resulting ____of two or more waves colliding is the sum of _____.
amplitude, their individual amplitudes
For constructive or destructive interference to occur waves must have ____.
Complete destructive is when the resulting amplitude is ____.
when a wave collides with its reflection and a perfect standing wave is created.
do not move at all and are caused by perfect destructive interference
Antinodes move the most
Their amplitude is greater than the incoming wave, and resonance amplifies the intensity of the wave
Standing wave conditions
Wavelength must match length of setup
Standing wave speed is controlled by ____.
Standing wave length is controlled by ____.
Standing wave frequency is controlled by ____.
When half the wavelength matches integer multiples of L _____ is created
Half wavelength is _____ in a standing wave
Sound is a ______ wave
Rarefaction and compression move air molecules back and forth to create _____.
The speed of sound depends on _____ and _____.
Air pressure and temperature.
At standard pressure and temperature, the speed of sound is ___.
Wind instruments create _____.
Brass instruments change length to change _____.
Reeds and woodwinds create notes by establishing _____.
nodes and antinodes
Doppler effect explains why frequency we hear _______.
Source of the sound is moving ______.
Listener is moving _____.
relative speed of sound changes
Source is not moving waves spread like ______.
ripples through water
When source of waves moves, waves ______.
Bunch up in direction of movement, and spread on opposite side, changing wavelength
Doppler formula for moving object
f1 = f0(v/v+-vs)
v = speed of sound in air
vs = speed of moving source
f0 = frequency old or not moving or whatever
f1 = frequency new or whatever
If the source is moving towards the listener
Subtract the speed of the moving source
If source is moving away from the listener
Add the speed of the moving source
If the observer is approaching the source, then the relative velocity is
If the observer is moving away from the source, then the relative velocity is
Full doppler formula
f1 = (v +- vobserver)/(v +- vsource)*f0