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In an atom, the nucleus is composed of _____________ and _____________, and the ____________ orbit very quickly around the nucleus.

protons; neutrons; electrons

What accounts for all the unique properties of water?

Its unique geometry causes the water molecule to have a resulting electrical polarity.

Which type of bond holds adjacent water molecules together?

Hydrogen bond

Each hydrogen atom shares its single electron with electrons in the oxygen atom. Which type of bond is this?

Covalent bond

The fact that ice is less dense than water—which causes ice to float—is due to ___________.

the molecular packing of bulky ice crystals

In the open ocean, average seawater salinity is ___________.


Most processes that affect the ocean's salinity occur ___________.

at the ocean surface

The Red Sea has ____________ water because of large amounts of ______________.

hypersaline; evaporation

The Baltic Sea has ____________ because of ______________.

brackish water; large amounts of runoff

Where is the salinity of ocean surface waters HIGHEST?

about 25 degrees north or south of the equator

There is no pycnocline in _______ latitude regions because _____________.

high-; the water column is uniformly cold and dense

In water vapor, there is no interconnectedness of individual water molecules (no hydrogen bonds).


Latent heat can be absorbed or released only as water undergoes the process of changing state (e.g., as water changes from a liquid to a solid).


The heat capacity of water is lower than that of most other substances.


In the high latitudes, there is a prominent and well-developed thermocline.


Which of the following INCREASES the salinity of seawater?

Evaporation of seawater

Which of the following terms describes a rapid change in salinity with depth?


The density of seawater increases with ________ in temperature and ________ in salinity.

a decrease; an increase

A layer of rapid change of ocean density with depth is called a ___________.


The process of purifying seawater by removing most of its dissolved substances is called ___________.


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