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Patho Midterm Review
Terms in this set (37)
nurse is evaluating the direct end effect of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Which principle should the nurse remember?
A. Angiotensin II causes systemic vasoconstriction.
B. Renin promotes the excretion of sodium and water in the renal tubules.
C. Aldosterone increases renal retention of water only.
D. Angiotensin I promotes sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys.
Angiotensin II causes systemic vasoconstriction.
A 52-year-old female is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. The nurse assesses for myocardial:
A 68-year-old male presents to the ER reporting chest pain. He has a history of stable angina that now appears to be unstable. He most likely has:
a. mild to moderate atherosclerosis
b.impending myocardial infraction
c. electrical conduction problems in the heart
d. decreased myocadial oxygen demand
Impending myocardial infarction (MI)
Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?
A 32-year-old female suffers from severe brain damage following a motor vehicle accident. After rehabilitation she noticed that her thought processes and goal-oriented behavior were impaired. The area most likely responsible is the:
A neurologist is teaching about the region responsible for motor aspects of speech. Which area is the neurologist discussing?
For evaporation to function effectively as a means of dissipating excess body heat, which one of the following conditions must be present?
Hikers are attempting to cross the Arizona deserts with a small supply of water. The temperatures cause them to sweat profusely and become dehydrated. This condition is referred to as:
b. malignant hyperthermia
c. heat stroke
d. heat exhaustion
A patient asks when most dreams occur. What is the nurse's best response? Most dreams occur during _____ sleep.
A patient has increased intraocular pressure. Which diagnosis will the nurse observe on the chart?
a. occular dgeneration
A 50 year old male cut his hand off while working in a sawmill. Several years later he still sporadically feels pain in the absent hand. This is what type of pain?
a. phantom limb pain
b. neuropathic pain
c. visceral pain
d. chronic pain
phantom limb pain
When the nurse is taking a patient's temperature, which principle should the nurse remember? Regulation of body temperature primarily occurs in the:
d. Pituitary gland
20-year-old female suffered from spinal cord injury that resulted from a motor vehicle accident. She had spinal shock lasting 15 days and is now experiencing an uncompensated cardiovascular response to sympathetic stimulation. This condition may accompany:
a. toxic accumulation of free radicals below the level of injury
b. an abnormal vagal response
c. a distended bladder and rectum
d. pain stimulation above the level of the spinal cord lesion
a distended bladder and rectum
The patient reports generalized muscle weakness. The health care provider orders administration of the medication edrophonium chloride (Tensilon). This medication is used in the diagnosis of:
a. autonomic hyperreflexia
b. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
c. myasthenia gravis
If a patient's posterior pituitary is removed, which hormone would the nurse expect to decrease?
Which principle should the nurse include while planning care for a patient with an ADH problem? ADH release from the posterior pituitary is stimulated by:
a. high serum osmalaruty sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
b. low BP sensed by baroreceptors in the kidney
c. low osmolality sensed my osmoreceptores in the kidney
d. high concentration of K sensed by chemoreceptors in the carotid body
High serum osmolarity sensed by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
Which nutrient would the nurse encourage the patient to consume for thyroid hormone synthesis?
A 45-year-old female has elevated thyroxine production. Which of the following would accompany this condition in primary disease?
a. Increased thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH)
b. Increased anterior pituitary stimulation
c. Decreased T4
d. Decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
A 50-year-old male with one kidney had to undergo surgery for an adrenal tumor. His adrenal cortex was largely removed during the surgery. The nurse would expect the removal of this tumor to result in a decrease in:
A patient has researched lipid-soluble hormones on the Internet. Which information indicates the patient has a good understanding? Lipid-soluble hormone receptors cross the plasma membrane by:
c. Active transport
A 54-year-old patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (lung infection) is evaluated for syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). Which of the following electrolyte imbalances would be expected in this patient?
A nurse is preparing to teach about erythropoietin. Which information should the nurse include? Erythropoietin is produced in the:
c. bone marrow
A 59-year-old female is diagnosed with left ventricular failure. If a decrease in kidney perfusion occurs, the nurse knows this would ultimately cause:
a. decreased left ventricular preload
b. decreased cardiac oxygen demand
c. increased systemic vascular resistance
d. increased pulmonary capillary permeability
increased systemic vascular resistane
A patient asks the nurse where nociceptors can be found. How should the nurse respond? One location in which nociceptors can be found is the
a. efferent pathways
b. spinal cord
To prevent Reye syndrome in infants, which of the following instructions should be given to parents?
a. remove lead paint from the home
b. lock up hazardous cleaning agents
c. treat fevers with acetaminophen, not aspirin
d. breast-feed infants as long as possible
treat fevers with acetaminophen, not aspirin
what condition will cause a patient to secrete erythropoietin
d. low BP
After erythrocytes have circulates for about 120 days they are removed by macrophages that are primarily in the:
d. Bone marrow
The body's inability to conserve water and sodium when affected by Addison disease is explained by which of the following conditions
a. hypersecretion of ADH
b. elevated levels of cortisol
c. aldosterone deficiency
d. decreased levels of ACTH
A nurse is caring for a patient with SIADH. What severe complications should the nurse assess for?
A. renal failure
B. diabeter insipidus
d. cerebral odema
After birth, red blood cells are normally made only in the?
c. bone marrow
When a staff member asks how erythrocytes can carry oxygen, which of the following properties should the nurse describe that allow erythrocytes to function as gas carriers? (Select all that apply.)
b. Reversible deformability
c. Undergoes mitotic division
d. Presence of many mitochondria
e. Presence of a nucleus
A 35-year-old female with Graves disease is admitted to a medical-surgical unit. Which of the following symptoms would the nurse expect to find before treatment?
a. constipation, confusion
b. weight gain, cold intolerance
c. slow heart rate
d. skin hot and moist, rapid heart rate
skin hot and moist, rapid heart rate
An endocrinologist is teaching about aldosterone secretion. Which information should the endocrinologist include? Aldosterone secretion is regulated by:
a. renin-angiotensin system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. positive feedback
d. ACTH feedback
What common neurologic disturbances should the nurse assess for in a patient with a pituitary adenoma?
a. breathing abnormalities
b. visual disturbance
d. confused states
A 50-year-old male patient is deficient in ADH production. Which of the following assessment findings would the nurse expect to find?
a. increased urine volume
b. increased blood volume
c. increased arterial vasoconstriciton
d. increased urine osmolality
increased urine volume
A 70 year old female has brittle bones secondary to osteoporosis. Her physician prescribes calcitonin because it:
a. promote thyroid hormone release
b. activate vit D
c. stimulate osteoclast activity
d. inhibit calcium reabsorption from bones
inhibit calcium reabsorption from bones
a 65 year old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. he now has aspiration of gastric contents. the nurse assess the patient for which complication
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