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180 terms

sociology final

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Our decision to marry a particular person usually reflects the fact that
That the social world guides human behavior.
Auguste Comte applied the methods of science in studying and understanding society. He called this way of understanding the world based on science, _____________
Positivism
C. Wright Mills pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread:
in times of social crisis
Mike, in the story on page six of the text book, initially faulted himself for his layoff . He stopped blaming himself only when he realized that:
A) he was not alone as he began to see a pattern in which all his tech support colleagues were also laid off
B) tech support jobs were victims of massive outsourcing to cheaper places like India.
C) These were societal forces over which he had no control
D) All of the above
According to Durkheim, who of the following would be most likely to take his or her own life?
an unmarried wealthy man
Striking changes took place in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that were especially important in the development of sociology. Which is NOT one of these?
The spread of the Roman Catholic church
Towards the end of the Middle Ages in Europe, people began to see society as natural, not divine. Comte classified this stage of societal development as:
Metaphysical stage
Which theoretical approach is closest to that developed by early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim?
Structural-functional approach
Which of the following best describes the focus of structural-functionalism?
The consequences of social patterns for the operation of society
Our schools today serve as a "market for lovers." Robert K. Merton's term for this unintended consequence is:
Latent functions
Robert Merton's argument for functional alternatives reflects his belief that what is functional for one category of a society's population:
May disadvantage another category.
In Barbara Ehrenreich's study of low-wage work, she concluded that:
many low-wage workers feel unworthy, even to the point of not trying.
Looking at the operation of U.S. schools, the social-conflict approach might lead a sociologist to conclude that:
Society provides much better schooling to some categories of students than to others.
While Structural Functionalism seeks to understand how society operates, for Karl Marx, the point of studying society was:
To change it by reducing inequality.
The basic idea of the symbolic-interaction approach is that society is:
The reality people construct as they interact with one another.
Which theoretical approach highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as the meaning they attach to their behavior?
Symbolic-interaction approach
Which of the following theoretical approaches paints societies in broad strokes at a macro-level?
The structural-functional and social-conflict approaches
Which of the following illustrates a micro-level focus?
Two airplane passengers getting to know one another
Comte emphasized a new way of understanding the world based on science. He called this approach _________________.
positivism
Over time, patterns of social behavior become relatively stable. When this happens, they are referred to as ____________________
social structures
You design a survey to understand how happy people living in Kingwood are. You sent the survey to a small number of people randomly chosen to represent the entire population of Kingwood. The people receiving the survey would constitute ___________________
a sample
Feminism, which fights to narrow inequality between women and men, can best be classified under which of these theoretical perspectives?
the social-conflict approach
The social-conflict approach is sometimes criticized for:
having an agenda or being clearly activist or political
Which of the following statements comes closest to correctly linking sociology's methodological orientations and its theoretical approaches?
The critical orientation corresponds to the social-conflict approach.
A symbolic interactionist analysis of sports might emphasize:
the different meaning people attach to games.
A researcher who uses data gathered from males to draw conclusions about all of humanity is guilty of:
Overgeneralization.
The sociological research method best suited to identifying cause-and-effect relationships is:
The experiment.
When a researcher joins a cult group to study it, he is using this research method:
Participant observation
The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher:
must strive to be personally neutral about the outcome of the research.
Two variables are said to display correlation if:
They vary together.
When conducting sociological research we see men's activities as more important than women's, we would be guilty of "overgeneralization."
False
People usually do not recognize all of the functions of any particular social structure.
True
For a sociological research project to be recognized as sound, the researcher can never cross the line from observer to participant.
False
Every social structure is useful or positively functional for all categories in society.
False
A sociologist should never use data collected by any other person or organization
False
While Reliability refers to measuring exactly what one intends to measure, Validity refers to consistency in measurement.
False
If two variables are correlated, then one must be the cause of the other.
False
The sociological imagination lets us understand that people's lives are mostly a result of what they decide to do.
False
If you were engaged in interpretive sociology, you would consider subjective feelings to be a source of bias.
False
Philip Zimbardo conducted an experiment that supported the idea that "violent prisoners make prisons violent."
False
Empirical evidence refers to what people in a society agree is true.
False
The marriage rate in the U.S. is lowest in January, when the death rate is highest. This shows a cause and effect relationship since the two variables change together.
False
Historical research is very possible using existing data and documents, also referred to as secondary analysis.
True
In the United States, the sociological perspective can be described as "seeing the strange in the familiar," given the individualistic culture of Americans.
True
A hypothesis is a relationship between two or more variables that a researcher knows to be correct.
False
Christians believe the concept of the Holy Trinity. This would be an example of:
Non-material culture
Sam felt disgust when, visiting another country over spring break, he saw children working long hours hawking goods. His experiences can be called:
Culture shock.
Wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violating our culture's:
Mores
Which of these would Gerhard Lenski especially highlight as bringing about change in society?
The discovery of new sources of energy
Rosa Parks's refusal to give up her bus seat illustrates the ______ level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
post-conventional
The concept "cultural lag" refers to the fact that:
Some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
Levi's jeans are much very popular in Russia. This is an example of cultural ________
Diffusion
A person who criticizes the Amish farmer as foolish or backward for tilling his fields using horses and a plow instead of a tractor is exhibiting:
Ethnocentrism.
As an example of a type of influence and learning called _________, adolescents may copy the styles and slang of a group they want to join.
anticipatory socialization
A study of the life-course stages leads one to conclude that these stages:
are linked to biology, but they are mostly defined by society.
The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that:
Without social experience, a child is incapable of developing a self or personality.
Which of these statements linking nature and nurture does sociology hold to be correct?
For human beings, it is our nature to nurture.
This concept refers to efforts to radically change someone's personality through careful control of the environment:
resocialization
In Freud's model of personality, this element of the personality represents a person's efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives and the demands of society:
ego
In developing his personality theory, Jean Piaget's focus was on:
cognition, or how people think and understand.
George Herbert Mead placed the origin of the self in:
social experience.
When Charles Horton Cooley used the term "looking-glass self," he was referring to the fact that:
people see themselves as they think others see them.
Being an honors student is a good example of which of the following?
Achieved status
Many surgeons choose not to operate on their own children because the personal involvement of being a parent could affect the professional objectivity needed by a physician. This example involves which of the following?
Role conflict.
A plant supervisor wishes to be a good friend and a confidant to the workers, but must remain distant to assess the workers' performance. Which of the following is involved?
Role strain
Flirting is one good example of an everyday experience involving:
Social construction of reality
Which of the following might be part of the classroom performance of a professor?
Use of props, such as books and notes
B) Use of a stage, including lectern or desk
C) Manner, such as trying to appear in charge of the situation
D) All of the above are correct.
The Thomas theorem states that situations defined as real are real in their consequences. This means that:
Any belief, rational or irrational, has consequences for behavior
Max Weber argued that formal organizations, while efficient, have the ability to
alienate people within them.
To Weber, the rise of bureaucratic organizations is an expression of
rationality.
You are a very loyal member of the "Super Stars Club," a social group that you like and respect dearly. Which of these concepts accurately describes the kind of social group that this represents for you?
in-group
Adrian is a leader who tends to downplay her position and power, allowing the group to function more or less on its own. Which type of leader is she?
Laissez-faire leaders
Jake is a member of the Bulldogs soccer team. His team's main rival is the Tigers and members of his team put down the Tigers all the time. To Jake, the Tigers represent:
an out-group
The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filling out extensive paperwork is a classic example of:
Bureaucratic ritualism.
Which of the following is evidence of the "McDonaldization of society"?
Rreplacing bank tellers with automatic teller machines (ATMs)
B) Shopping in carefully designed, climate-controlled malls
C) The spread of world-wide chain stores and restaurants
D) All of the above.
Pastoral and horticultural societies are not capable of a productive surplus.
False
The popular TV show "American Idol" most vividly reflects the American value of success or achievemen
True
Values and norms describe actual behavior, not how we should behave
False
Modern people, according to David Riesman, tend to develop other-directed personalities, characterized by superficiality, weak beliefs, and change.
True
Research shows that class position affects not just how much money parents have to spend on their children but also what parents expect of them.
True
Social isolation in infancy is sometimes harmful but never results in permanent and irreversible developmental damage.
False
George Herbert Mead believed that "the self" is present at birth.
False
Robert Merton's would describe the behavior of a low-paid, yet rigidly conforming bank teller as deviant ritualism.
True
The idea that reality is socially constructed means everyday experiences do not seem real to most people.
False
People usually have more statuses than they have roles.
False
Dramaturgical analysis treats a status as a part in a play, and a role serves as a script.
True
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to how others respond to a person's behavior.
False
A small club wants to increase it's income by attracting many new members. If it does so, it is likely that the social ties among members will become more intense and personal.
False
Groupthink is a form of social conformity among people in groups.
True
Research shows that the number of people in a group has little to do with how the members interactwith one another.
False
In terms of his sexuality, Mark has always felt that he is "trapped in the wrong body." This feeling suggests that Mark is in which of the following categories of people?
Transsexual people
Sociologists point out several important functions of the incest taboo. Which of the following statements is NOT one of them?
The incest taboo limits a family's contact with the larger society.
The sexual revolution had greater significance for women because:
They were historically subjected to greater sexual regulation.
There is now greater acceptance of premarital sex and an increasing tolerance for for various sexual orientations. This is evidence that:
The sexual revolution is ongoing.
Which of these sexual orientation is a cultural universal?
Heterosexuality
James has romantic feelings towards Jane. Janet also has romantic feelings towards Jane. Jane, however, feels nothing towards either one of them. Jane's sexual orientation can be described as:
Asexuality.
Comparative research indicates that:
although sex has a biological foundation, it is an element of culture that varies from place to place.
The significance of Alfred Kinsey's research on sexuality in the United States was:
Defining sexuality as a proper focus of scientific study.
B) Showing that people were less conventional than was widely assumed.
C) Fostering a new openness towards sexuality.
D) All of the above.
Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?
The structural-functional approach
Historically, once a society develops effective birth-control technology:
Social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive.
Read the following statements. Which of the statements is NOT consistent with the social-conflict approach?
Because people construct social reality differently, one group's views of sexuality may well differ from another's.
Which of the following statements correctly states the distinctive focus of the symbolic-interaction approach regarding sexuality?
It explains that societies construct patterns of sexuality and highlights the variety of practices and beliefs involving sexuality found around the world.
Which of the following concepts refers to a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"?
Heterosexism
The more global our view of sexuality:
The more variety we see in the meanings people attach to sexuality.
Which one of the following is an example of deviance? A student:
Sits in a front row, in a center seat in your sociology class and picks his or her nose throughout the class period
B) Walks into your sociology class naked because it is hot outside
C) Cheats on his or her first sociology examination
D) All of the above.
Which statement best states the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes?
Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing criminal behavior.
The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because:
Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities.
In his strain theory, Robert Merton would use which of the following concepts to describe people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who "drop out."
Retreatist
Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that "good boys" have the ability to control deviant impulses because they have:
strong superegos
When friends began to criticize Juan as a "boozer," pushing him out of their social circle, he began to drink even more and became bitter. Juan then joins a new group of friends, who all drink too much. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates:
The onset of secondary deviance.
In his strain theory, Robert Merton uses which of the following concepts to describe the behavior of a radical who rejects cultural goals and means in favor of some alternative system?
rebellion
Travis Hirschi's control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance?
Youngsters who "hang out" waiting for something to happen
Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that a capitalist society is likely to label which of the following categories of people as deviant?
people who are not very productive economically
Monica, a new student in a high school, becomes friends with a group of teenagers who use marijuana. Monica had never used marijuana, but soon begins to, like her new friends. This is an example of:
Both differential association and conformity
Sarah's boyfriend show up very late for dinner. Upset, Sarah tells him to sleep on the couch. This type of social control is known as:
Informal social control
A college student is caught cheating on an examination and is brought before a disciplinary committee, which expels the student. The committee's action is an example of:
Formal social control
Alexander Liazos speaks for the social-conflict approach when he states that:
powerless people are at the highest risk of being defined as deviant.
Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior." This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?
Functionalist perspective
An unemployed young man wants a stereo, but has no money or the means of earning the money to buy the stereo, so he steals one from a store. This incident illustrates which theory of deviance?
Merton's strain theory.
Which of the following illustrates the "medicalization of deviance"?
theft being redefined as a "compulsive disorder"
B) drinking too much being redefined as "alcoholism"
C) promiscuity being redefined as a "sexual addiction"
D) All of the above are correct.
A child's sex is determined at conception by chromosomes contributed by the mother.
False
Homosexuality and heterosexuality are mutually exclusive; that is, all people fall into one category or the other.
False
Transgendered people are people who try to be extremely male or female in their appearance and actions.
False
If you were to study sexuality in global context, you would expect to see that human sexual behavior is very similar across all cultures.
False
Crime is more common among lower class and poor young people because of drug dependence and other substance addiction.
False
Henrietta grew up during the Great Depression. She was part of the first cohort in U.S. history to grow up with the idea that sex was part of everyone's life, married or not.
False
Although the sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, it changed behavior among men more than among women.
False
The social-conflict and feminist approaches highlight the ways sexual attitudes and practices benefit some people and disadvantage others.
True
Labeling theory states that some actions are always considered deviant while others never are defined this way.
False
Travis Hirschi's "control theory" would lead us to expect that people who commit crimes have little concern about the consequences of their behavior.
True
The stigma of deviance may encourage an individual to engage in further deviance.
True
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to how others respond to a person's behavior.
False
Prostitution is widely regarded as one example of a victimless crime.
True
Robert Merton's would describe the behavior of a low-paid, yet rigidly conforming bank teller as deviant ritualism.
True
Albert Cohen suggested that lower-class youths join delinquent subcultures to gain the self-respect that the larger society so often denies them.
True
In a capitalist economic system, "justice" amounts to:
marketplace freedom—buying, selling, or investing according to self-interest.
Gloria works in a factory sewing shirts. In what sector of the econmy is she employed?
secondary sector.
The primary sector would account for the largest share of economic output in which of these countries?
low-income nations
Lizette lives in a European country that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs. Which of the following concepts best describes her country?
welfare capitalism
As Max Weber saw it, the essential difference between power and authority is that:
people perceive authority as legitimate rather than coercive.
Industrialization usually produces this kind of political authority:
rational-legal authority.
Which of the following traits would NOT be used correctly to describe the operation of a socialist economy?
laissez-faire economy
As a general rule across the United States, __________ people tend to vote Democratic, while __________ people tend to vote Republican.
urban; rural
In general, terrorism is the strategy favored by:
a weak organization in conflict with a much stronger foe.
A pluralist approach to the U.S. political system claims that
power is spread widely throughout society.
Globalization of the economy means that:
world regions specialize in one sector of economic activity.
B) more and more products pass through several nations.
C) a small number of businesses control a large share of the planet's economy.
D) All of the above
In general, industrialization tends to change the dominant family form from
extended families to nuclear families.
Which of the following categories of people would you pick as being at the highest risk of divorce?
young people who marry after a short courtship
Karl Marx believed that religion:
reinforces patterns of social inequality.
As the official Church of England, the Anglican church is best described as a:
state church.
Which of the following is an example of civil religion?
patriotism
Which of the following are counted among the functions of the family?
socialization of the young
B) regulation of sexual activity
C) social placement
D) All of the above
Which of the following are reasons for the rise in divorce rates in the United States?
rising individualism
B) romantic love often fades
C) women are less economically dependent on men
D) All of the above
Emile Durkheim pointed to three societal functions of religion. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
increasing social conflict
According to a social-conflict approach, what is one factor the sacred texts of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have in common?
support for patriarchy
Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
providing child-care
In general, a structural-functional approach to health and medicine treats illness as
dysfunctional, preventing people from performing their roles.
Jane Elliott's experiment in her Iowa classroom confirmed:
the Thomas Theorem or self-fulfilling prophecy by which students perform to meet the expectations of teachers.
An example of the "social capital" advantage of well-to-do students in U.S. schooling is having parents who:
spend more time reading to their children.
B) value schooling and encourage their children's learning.
C) encourage the development of imagination in their children.
D) All of the above
Conducting research on how students from different social backgrounds perform in schools, Douglas Downey concluded that:
the home and local community matter most in shaping students' academic performance.
The medical establishment in the United States can be described as oriented toward:
scientific medicine.
Someone guided by the social-conflict approach would point to which of the following as causing patterns of health and illness?
social inequality
According to the social-conflict approach, schooling in the United States:
transforms social privilege into personal merit.
From a social-conflict point of view, capitalism fails to support human health because:
quality of health care depends on income.
An analysis guided by the symbolic interactionist approach would emphasize which of the following as animportant factor shaping patterns of health and illness?
people's perceptions of their own health
If you were living in a postindustrial society shaped by the Information Revolution, you would be smart to gain literacy skills instead of technical skills.
True
One clear difference between the two types of economic systems is that capitalism creates greater economic equality than socialism.
False
Traditional authority plays a larger role than rational-legal authority in U.S. political life.
False
Democracy and rational-legal authority are linked, just as monarchy and traditional authority are linked.
True
In the next U.S. presidential election, it would be safe to predict that rural people will support the Democratic candidate.
False
It is reasonable to expect that twenty-first-century families will be quite diverse in form.
True
Any religious organization that is well outside of a society's cultural traditions can be described as a cult.
True
A caste system favors exogamous marriage.
False
Fundamentalism encourages a highly intellectual view of the world.
False
A family composed two parents with no children is a nuclear family while one made up of two parents with children is an extended family
False
Schooling in all countries—high- and low-income alike—reflects patterns of culture.
True
Eating disorders have much to do with how our society defines femininity.
True
Holistic medicine seeks to change the focus of medical practice from treating symptoms of disease to preventing disease and promoting health.
True
The school dropout rate is higher for young people from well-off upper class families since they can still succeed in life, unlike kids from poor low-income families.
False
In much of the world, illness and poverty form a vicious circle, with each causing the other
True