Terms in this set (...)

Instructional models
direct, indirect, independent, experiential, interactive
direct instruction
a general term for the explicit teaching of skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material
indirect instruction
role of teacher shifts from lecturer/director to that of a facilitator, supporter, and resource person. The teacher arranges the learning environment, provides opportunity for student involvement, and when appropriate, provides feedback to students while they conduct inquiry.
independent instruction
provided to foster the development of individual student initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement. Independent study or learning in partnerships or small group. teachers need to make sure that the learners have the necessary skills in order to accomplish the task.
experimental instruction
is inductive, learner centered, and activity oriented. The emphasis is on the process of learning and not on the product. Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply leanings to other contexts are critical factors.
interactive instruction
relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants. These may include total class discussions, small group discussions or projects, or student pairs or triads working on assignments together.
Instructional strategies associated with direct instruction
explicit teaching, drill and practice, lecture, demonstrations, guides for reading, listening, viewing
Instructional strategies associated with indirect instruction
problem solving, inquiry, case studies, concept mapping, reading for meaning.
Instructional strategies associated with independent instruction
learning centers, research projects, Socratic teaching, computer mediated instruction
Socratic teaching
focus on giving students questions, not answers
Instructional strategies associated with experiential and virtual instruction
field trips, experiments, simulations, role play, games, observations
Instructional strategies associated with interactive instruction
brainstorming, cooperative learning groups, interviews, discussions, debates
observational learning. An effective instructional strategy that allows students to observe the teacher's thought process. Using this type of instruction, teachers engage students in imitation of particular behaviors that encourage learning.
strategic action
planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard
Types of grouping techniques
cooperative learning, collaborative learning, heterogeneous grouping, homogeneous grouping, multi-age grouping, gender grouping
short term memory
involves the recall of info for a relatively short time
long term memory
the continuing storage of info
procedural memory
our memory for how to do things
implicit memory
expressed through performance rather than conscious recall
teachable moment
an unplanned event during the day that teachers can use as an extra learning opportunity for students. Generally happens during another activity, when you have the children's attention and their interest.
allowing think/wait time
used to elicit responses to higher-level questioning
active listening
restating key points, asking questions, interpreting information, providing supportive feedback, being respectful
strategies for supporting students in articulating their ideas
verbal and non-verbal prompting, restatement, reflective listening statements, wait time
How can children achieve a higher level of thinking?
in order for a learner to understand and handle a concept at the abstract or symbolic level successfully, they need to first understand concrete levels (manipulatives), then pictorial level
strategies for promoting a safe and open forum for discussion
engaging all learners, creating a collaborative environment, respecting diverse opinions, supporting risk taking
formal assessment
preplanned, systematic attempts by the teacher to ascertain what students have learned. Used in combination with goals and objectives set forth at the beginning of a lesson or the school year. Students can prepare ahead of time for them.
informal assessment
result from teacher's spontaneous day-to-day observations of how students behave and perform in class. They offer important insight into a student's misconceptions and abilities (or inabilities) that might not be represented accurately through other formal assessments.
an explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance that usually includes potential levels of achievement for each criterion
analytical checklists
a criterion-referenced writing assessment that is the least complex form of scoring system. Simple lists indicating the presence, not the quality, of the elements
scoring guides
assessing projects that include points or ratings at each level to help determining scores. Looks very similar to a rubric (used for projects though), except for the addition of a multiplier to add weighting for each trait
anecdotal notes
an informal written record for tracking a child's social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development
where pieces of work and projects throughout the course are assessed and the final grade thus reflects the whole course/year/semester.
achievement test
the most common type of achievement test which measures skills and knowledge learned in a given grade level, usually through planned instruction, such as training or classroom instruction. They are "backward-looking" in that they measure how well students have learned what they were expected to learn.
aptitude test
used to measure a student's knowledge and learning potential. They are "forward-looking" in that they typically attempt to forecast or predict how well students will do in a future educational or career setting.
ability test
measures potential rather than simply academic performance, and are often used to make predictions about how people will perform in a work setting
norm-referenced scoring
compares an examinees performance to that of other examinees EX: SAT
criterion-referenced scoring
each examinees performance is compared to a pre-defined set of criteria or standard
refers to the accuracy of an assessment- whether or not it measures what it is supposed to measure
the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results
raw score
indicated the number of points a student learned on a test. EX: if a student got 30/50 questions right their raw score would be 30
scaled score
a conversion of a student's raw score on a test or a version of the test to a common scale that allows for a numerical comparison between students
percentile scoring
indicated the percent of students in a particular group that received lower raw scores on a test than the student did. It shows the student's relative position, or rank, among a group of students in the same grade who were tested at the same time of year.
standard deviation
shows how much variation or dispersion from the average exists
grade-equivalent scores
the number to the left of the decimal represents the grade level and the number to the right of the decimal represents the month. EX: if a 7th grader earned a GE of 8.4 her raw score is like the raw score of the typical students would likely earn on the same test at the end of the fourth month of the 8th grade.
holistic scoring
involves a single score to an entire piece as a whole EX: A, B, C
analytic scoring
involves scoring separately for each component of a finished product EX: student's writing is evaluated based on detailed grades for each elements of writing such as vocab, grammar, composition, or mechanics
incident analysis
a structured process for identifying what happened, how and why it happened, what can be done to reduce the risk of recurrence and make care safer, and what was learned.
a systematic collection of materials selected to demonstrate a person's level of knowledge, skill, or ability in a particular area
equal access
"the meetings must not interfere with the orderly conduct of educational activities within the school" correctly states a criterion under which the school would be directed by law to offer fair opportunity for ___
privacy and confidentiality
the ethical obligation to conceal info obtained through a professional relationship. In school settings, this right to privacy is given to minors and their parents or guardians
first amendment issues
public schools may not inculcate nor inhibit religion. they must be places where religion and religious conviction are treated with fairness and respect
intellectual freedom
is the right of every individual to both seek and receive info from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored.
due process
is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owned to a person
the state of being responsible for something, especially by law
the exclusive legal right, given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same