59 terms

final exAM

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james watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
edwin drake
American pioneer in oil industry; became first to drill for petroleum
thomas edison
United States inventor invented electric light
factory system
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
luddites
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
socialists
people who believe industries should be publicly owned
nations
Group of people who have the same laws and leaders.
italian unification
the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.
the industrail revolution
period in which fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and the social structure in England.
otto von bismark
Prussian prime minister, he led the unification of Germany and the creation of the German empire.
empire
a group of countries under a single authority
the civilizing mission
The idea that Europeans should come to Africa and educate/ "save"
central powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
franz ferdinand
Archduke of Austria-Hungary
home front
the mobilization of a nation civilian population during war; The name given to the part of war that was not actively involved in the fighting but which was vital to it.
vladimir lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
the league of nations
The international organization, created by the Treaty of Versailles, which was supposed to help create a future in which there would be no need for war.
rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death
great depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
new deal
Franklin Roosevelt's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression
facism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
kristallnacht
Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys
munich agreement
agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
blitzkreig
"Lighting Wars" type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
battle of britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
the manhattan project
a secret research and development project of the US to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the US the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era
the holocaust
The mass murder of 6 million Jews and others in Nazi concentration camps.
stalingrad
a city in the European part of Russia on the Volga
hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
selective breeding
The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
george stephenson
English railway pioneer who built the first passenger railway in 1825 (1781-1848)
nikolaus otto
invented internal combustion engine; from Germany, invented gas powered internal combustion engine
samuel morse
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
division of labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
romantics
group of authors and artists during the 1800s who thought people should return to nature
communists
Those who believe that socialism can only be realized through violent revolution and totalitarian dictatorship, emerged from bolshevicks
nationalism
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other, love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
schlieffen plan
Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
franco-prussian war
Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power.
imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
triple entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
total war
a war in which a belligerent engages in the complete mobilization of fully available resources and population
fourteen points
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
the treaty of versailles
A peace treaty signed at Versailles at the end of WW1 that involved 32 countries including Canada.
nicholas II alexandra
He relied on the army and bureaucracy to uphold his regime. But World War I magnified his problems. Took personal control of his armed force, and got severely raped in the war.
provisional government
temporary government that replaced nicholas II
dust bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
alexandra
Last Czarina of Russia. Wife of Nicholas II. With Czar at the battlefield she interfiered with politics on advice from Rasputin who claimed to be a holy man. She and her family was executed.
totalitarianism
absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution.
lebensraum
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
sudetenland
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
molotov ribbentrop pact
Non-agression treaty between Germany and Russia
vichy france
fascist authoritarian corporate puppet government after france was overtaken.
operation barbarossa
codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
lend lease program
arrangement for the transfer of war supplies, including food, machinery, and services, to nations whose defense was considered vital to the defense of the United States in World War II.
einsatzgruppen
Nazi strike forces that killed innocent Jews with their infamous "death squads"
mussolini
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)