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91 terms

Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Androgynous
Incorporated both feminine and masculine properties
Feminine
Description of traits, behaviors or interest assigned to the female gender role
Masculine
Description of traits, behaviors or interest assigned to the male gender role
Bisexual
Accept other/same sex as sexual partners
Heterosexual
Other sex= sexual partner
Homosexual
Prefer same sex sexual partner
Constructionist
Pplt w/ the perspective that gender cannot be divorced from its context
Feminism
Men and women should be treated equally
Sexism
Affective component of ones attitude toward sex characterized by demonstration of prejudice toward ppl on their sex
Gender
Social categories of male and female
Sex
Biological categoreies of male and female
Gender Identity/Gender-Role Identity
Ones perception of oneself as psychologically male or female
Gender Role
Expectations that go along with being a male or female
Gender-Role Attitude
Ones personal view about how men and women should behave
Interrrole Conflict
Conflict between expectations of two or more roles that are assumed simultaneously
Intrarole Conflict
Conflict between expectations within a given role
Intersex
Person born with ambiguous genitalia
Maximalists
Persons who maintain there are important differences between the two sexes
Minimalists
Persons who maintain the two sexes are fundamentally the same
Sex-related behavior
Behavior corresponding to sex but is not necessarily caused by sex
Sex Stereotype
Cognitive component of one's attitude towards sex
Sex-Typed
Condition of possessing the biological traits of one sex and exhibiting the psychological traits that correspond with that sex
Sex-Typing
Acquisition of sex-appropriate preferences, behaviors, skills, and self-concept
Transgender
Individual who psychological sex is not congruent with biological sex
Transsexual
Persons who biological sex have been changed to reflect their psychological sex
Demand Characteristics
Ways in which participants of an experiment can influence the outcomes of a study
Experimenter Effects
Ways in which the experimenter can intentionally or unintentionally influence the results of a study
Situational Influences
Situations in which men and women find themselves and the people with whom they interact
Socially Desirability Response Bias
A demand characteristic; ways in which participants behave in experiments to give socially desirable answers
Unmitigated Agency
Personality orientation characterized by a focus on the self to the exclusion of others
Unmitigated Communion
Personality orientation characterized by a focus on others to the exclusion of the self
Traditional Gender Ideology
Men's sphere is work and women's sphere is home
Egalitarian Gender Ideology
Power is distributed equally between men and women and that men and women identify equally with them same spheres
Transitional Gender Ideology
Acceptable for women and men to identify with the same spheres, but should devote proportionally more time to matters at home and men should devote more time at work
Hostile Sexism
Feelings of hostility towards women reflected by negative assumption about women
Benevolent Sexism
Positive feelings toward women coupled with the notion that women are less competent than men and are in need of a mans help
Gender Stereotypes
Features that individuals assigns to men and women in their society; features are not assigned due to one's biological sex, but due to the social roles men and women hold
Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing
Process of noticing information that confirms stereotypes and disregarding information that disconfirms stereotypes
Empathy
Ability to experience the same emotion as another person or feel sympathy or compassion for another person
Moderating Variable
Variable that alters the relation between the independent variable and the dependent variable
Behavioral Confirmation
Process by which a perceivers expectation actually alters the targets behavior so the target comes to confirm the perceivers expectancy
Cognitive Confirmation
Idea that individuals see what they want to see
Gender Aschematic
Someone who does not use the gender category as guiding principle on behavior or as a way of processing information about the world
Gender Schematic
Someone who uses the gender category as guiding principle in behavior and as a way of processing information about the world.
Gender Constancy
Categorization of the self as male or female and the realization that is category cannot be changed
Social Cognitive Theory
States that cognitive development is one factor in gender-role acquisition, but there are social influences as well
Internal Attribution
Cause assigned to behavior that originates within the person
External Attribution
Cause assigned to a behavior that originates in the environment
Stable Attribution
Cause for behavior that does not change over time
Unstable Attribution
Cause for a behavior that may change with time, day, or place.
Expectancy/Value Model of Achievement
Theory that achievement-related choices are a function of out expectancy for success and our value of the area
Fear of Success
Association of negative consequences with achievement
Independent Self-Construal
Sense of self based on independence, individuation, and separation from others
Interdependent Self-Construal
Sense of self based on connection to others
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to assign internal attribution for success and external attribution for failure.
Positive Social Behavior
Social behaviors engaged in during group interaction that are intended to maintain group harmony
Task Behavior
Social behavior, such as asking questions and offering suggestions, that is directed toward achieving a specific goal
Negative Social Behavior
Behavior during group interaction that could harm a relationship, such as disagreement and provoking conflict.
Co-Rumination
Discussing problems repeatedly in the context of a relationship
Emotional Bond Challenge
Challenge faces by cross-sex friendship whereby the friends must decide if the closeness they feel toward one another is friendship or romantic love
Equality Challenge
Challenge faced by cross-sex friendships because the equality central to friendship conflicts with the status hierarchy typically associated with male/female relationships
Opportunity Challenge
Difficulty experienced when attempting to establish a cross-sex friendship that results from the fact that members of the same sex are generally more accessible.
Sexual Challenge
Challenge faces by cross-sex friendship whereby the friends must ask themselves if there is a sexual attraction between them that could lead to a romantic relationship
Demand/Withdraw Pattern
Interaction episode characterized by one person demanding and the other person not responding or withdrawing

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Equity
State of a relationship in which the ration of what puts in and gets out of a relationship equals that of the partner
Emotional Transmission
Situation in which one person's emotions influence another's persons emotions
Script
Schema or cognitive representation for a sequence of events
Social Exchange Theory
Theory that relationship satisfaction is partially a function of the rewards and costs in the relationship
Social Role Theory
Theory that states men's and women's behavior is a function of the roles that they hold in society.
Artifacts
Confounding variables that lead sex differences to appear that do not really exist
Health Behaviors
Activities that either promote good health or contribute to bad health
Illness Behaviors
Condition of labeling a symptom as illness and responding to it as such; adopting the sick role
Nurturant Role Hypothesis
Supposition that women's roles require them to attend to the needs of others which results in fatigue, exposure to illness, and not taking care of oneself when sick
Sick Role Hypothesis
Suggestion that sex difference in using medical care are due to women's greater tendency than men to adopt the "sick role"
Buffering Effects
Link of social support to health only under condition of high stress
Gender Tension Line
Point at which one feels uncomfortable with the adoption of some aspect of the other gender role
Intimate Terrorism
Violence on the part of men that stems from their attempts to control women.
Marital Rape Exemption Clause
Suggestion that healthier people are "selected" into marriage
Situational Couple Violence
Occasional episodes of violent behavior o the part of husbands and wives that are precipitated by stressful events
Access Discrimination
Situation in which an individual is not offered a given job or is offered a lesser job because of some defining characteristic
Glass Ceiling
Label applied to barriers to the advancement of women and minorities in organizations
Glass Escalator
Term referring to the ability for men to be promoted quickly when they take positions in traditionally female fields
Hostile Environment
Type of sexual harassment in which one person is creating a hostile, intimidating work environment for another
Marital Bonus
Increase in income granted to men who are married and/or have children compared to men who are single
Maternal Wall
Employers devaluation and limitation of job opportunities of female employees when they become parents
Quid Pro Quo
Type of sexual harassment in which one person offers work benefits or threatens work repercussions in exchange for sexual favors
Role Conflict
Condition in which the demand of one role are at odds with the demands of another role
Role Expansion Hypothesis
Idea that benefits are to be gained from having diverse roles
Role Scarcity Hypothesis
Idea that multiple roles will have negative effect on health because time and resources are limited and addition roles tap resources
Role Overload
Condition that arises when time limitations created difficulties in fulfilling obligations for ones roles
Treatment Discrimination
Situation in which an individual receives a reduced salary or reduced opportunities for promotions to other individuals having the same job