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In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled in the Dred Scott decision that

protection of slavery was guaranteed in all the territories of the West

Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin

intended to show the cruelty of slavery.

Uncle Tom's Cabin may be described as

a powerful political force

As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, many northerners

would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law

The roots of Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery sentiments lay in the

evangelical religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening

Hinton R. Helper's book, The Impending Crisis of the South, argued that those who suffered most from slave labor were

nonslaveholding southern whites

In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid 1850's,____________ was/were identified with the proslavery element, and _____________ was/were associated with the antislavery free-soilers

The Lecompton Constitution; the New England Immigrant Aid Society

The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of _______________ in the territories.

popular sovereignty

Match each figure with their role in the 1856
A. John C. Fremont
B. Millard Fillmore
C. Stephen A. Douglas
D. James Buchanan

1. Democratic nominee for president
2. Republican nominee for president
3. Know-Nothing (American Party) nominee for president
4. Too tainted by Kansas-Nebraska Act to obtain Democratic nomination

A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1

In the presidential election of 1856, the Republicans

revealed astonishing strength for a brand-new party

The real significance of the election of 1856 was that it

foreshadowed an ominous sectional clash over slavery in the election of 1860.

In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court

argued that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the federal territories

Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Dred Scot Decision, (B) Lincoln-Douglas Debates, (C) Kansas-Nebraska Act, and (D) Harpers Ferry raid.


For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was that

Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory

As a result of the panic of 1857, the South

believed that it was economically superior to the North.

In the North, the panic of 1857 created calls for

free homesteads and higher protective tariffs.

The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as

largely a failure until his meteoric rise after 1854.

As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates

Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate

Stephen A. Douglas argued, in his Freeport Doctrine, during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that

slavery would stay down if the people voted it down

After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded that

the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" Republicans.

Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 Republican party presidential nomination in part because he

had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward

Match each presidential candidate in the 1860 election topic of slavery
A. Abraham Lincoln
B. Stephen Douglas
C. John Breckenridge
D. John Bell

1. Extend slavery into the territories
2. ban slavery from the territories
3. preserve the Union by compromise
4. enforce popular sovereignty

A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3

In the election of 1860, the Constitutional Union party was formed

as a middle-of-the-road party fearing for the break up of the union.

"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that

the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.

President James buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of the following reasons except

he believed that the Constitution allowed secession

Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because

he had been elected on a platform that opposed the extension of slavery

Secessionists supported leaving the Union for all of the following reasons except

they believed that Republicans had been infiltrating their political ranks.

In declaring their independence, the Confederate States relied heavily on the example of the

principles of self-dtermination of the Declaration of Independence

The immense debt owed to northern creditors by the South was

repudiated by the South.

President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution.

hopelessly divided the democratic party

President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as

a middle of the road solution.

In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union, President Lincoln

used legally dubious methods

The Border States offered all of the following advantages except

large navigable rivers

Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery

revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies.

During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of present-day Oklahoma

supported the Confederacy.

In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union

waged war on them and herded them onto reservations

To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to

fight the invading Union army to a draw.

All of the following were similar characteristics that both Union and Confederate soldiers shared except

poor unskilled workers were well represented among both armies.

Johnny Reb tended to be all of the following except

detached personally from the war.

Billy Yank tended to be all of the following except


Of all the hardships faced by the soldiers during the civil War, the greatest was


The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was its


The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was its


Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to

the South's rickety transportation system

Northern soldiers eventually became known for their

discipline and determination

To find effective high-level commanders, the Union

used trial and error

A supposed asset fro the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was

intervention from Britain and France

On reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during the Civil War was that

they feared losing Northern grain shipments

The South believed that the British would come to its aid because

Britain was dependent on Southern cotton

During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by

the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from a British ship.

During the Civil War, diplomacy for the Union and the Confederacy

was critical for both

Confederate commerce-raiders such as the Alabama

proved effective against Union shipping

Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was a clear violation of

the Monroe Doctrine

America's minister to Britain, during the Civil War, under President Lincoln was

Charles Francis Adams

France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico

when the United States threatened to force France to leave.

During the Civil War

relations between the Union and Canada were at times very poor

The Southern cause was weakened by

the concept of states' rights that Confederacy professed.

As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis

defied rather than was led by public opinion

The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North

had a long-established and fully recognized government.

As president of the confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because

of the South's emphasis on states' rights

To fill the army's demand for troops, prior to 1863, the North relied mainly on


In Lincoln's attempts to preserve the Union, he did all of the following questionable actions as president except

refused to implement a draft, or conscription law, during the war

The Union's establishment of the National Banking System

was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.

During the Civil War, the Union

launched a new national banking system

As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy

greatly expanded its industrial and technological productivity

Possessing _____ percent of the nation wealth in 1860, the South claimed only ____ percent in 1870.

30, 12

During the Civil War, women in the North

had new opportunities opened to them in industry.

The Exodusters' westward massmigration to Kansas finally faltered when

steamboat captains refused to transport more former slaves across the Mississippi.

The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's Bureau were in


The white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as

a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance

In President Andrew Johnson's view, the Freedmen's Bureau was

a meddlesome agency that should be killed.

Andrew Johnson had been put on Lincoln's ticket as vice president in his second term

to appeal to War Democrats and pro-Union southerners

As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a reputation as a(n)

champion of the poor whites.

The controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the Confederate states to the Union demonstrated

the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress

In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised

rapid readmission of Southern states into the Union.

_______________believed that the Southern states had completely left the Union and were therefore, "conquered provinces" than terms Congress demanded

Thaddeus Stevens

For congressional Republicans, one of the most troubling aspects of the Southern states' quick restoration to the Union was that

with the black population fully counted, the South would be stronger than ever in nation politics

The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode into the open was

Johnson's veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen's Bureau.

The first and only ex-Confederate state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment in 1866 and thus be immediately readmitted to the Union was


The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed

citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves

The Fourteenth Amendment

prohibited ex-Confederate leaders from holding public office

Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 prompted Congress to seek passage of

The Fourteenth Amendment

In the 1866 congressional elections

voters endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction

The root cause of the battle between Congress and President Andrew Johnson was

Johnson's "soft" treatment of the white South

Many feminist leaders were especially disappointed with the Fourteenth Amendment because it

specified for the first time in the Constitution that only males could vote.

Which of the following was not among the functions provided by the black Union League?

Helping blacks migrate from the South to the North

Blacks in the South relied on the Union League to

educate them on their civic duties.

During Reconstruction, African American women assumed new political roles, which included all of the following except


Which one of the following is least related to the other four? (Ch. 22-Reconstruction)

Ku Klux Klan

Radical Reconstruction state governments

passed much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms

Political corruption during Reconstruction was

common in both North and South

The Ku Klux Klan could best be described as

a secret terrorist organization.

In 1867, Secretary of State Seward achieved the Johnson administration's greatest success in foreign relations when he

purchased Alaska from Russia

Johnson was narrowly acquitted on the impeachment charges because

it was finally recognized that the charges were dubious and political

All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson except

Johnson promised to step down as president

Reconstruction might have been more successful if

Thaddeus Stevens's radical program of drastic economic reforms and stronger protection of political rights had been enacted

The Freedmen's Bureau

was quite successful at providing education for former slaves.

Despite his status as a military hero, General Ulysses S. Grant proved to be a weak political leader because he

had no political experience and was a poor judge of character.

In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant

owed his victory to the votes of former slaves.

In the aftermath of the Civil War

waste, speculation, and corruption afflicted both business and government.

New York's notoriously corrupt Boss Tweed was finally jailed under the pressure of

New York Times exposes and the cartoons of Thomas Nast.

The Credit Mobilier scandal involved

railroad construction kickbacks.

The Liberal Republican revolt from the regular Republican party in 1972 was motivated primarily by

disgust at the corruption and scandals of the Grant administration

President Ulysses S. Grant was reelected in 1872 because

the Democrats and Liberal Republicans chose the eccentric editor Horace Greeley as their candidate

Match each politician below with the Republican faction associated
A. Roscoe Conkling
B. James Blaine
C. Horace Greeley
D. Ulysses Grant

1. "Half-Breeds"
2. Stalwarts
3. Regular Republicans
4. Liberal Republicans

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

One result of Republican hard money policies in the mid-1870s was

a political turn to the Democrats and new Greenback Labor party

Those who enjoyed a successful political career in the post-Civil War decades were usually

party loyalists

The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s

aroused enormous turnouts among voters even though there were few significant issues

In religious and cultural terms, the Republicans appealed especially to groups that derived their views from the

Puritan tradition of strict moral codes and government regulation of morality and society

One reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age was

sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties

Which of the following was not among the groups that formed the solid political base of the Republican party in the late nineteenth century

Northern Big Cities

The Compromise of 1877 resulted in

the withdrawal of federal troops and abandonment of black rights in the South.

The sequence of presidential terms of the "forgettable presidents" of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland's two nonconsecutive terms) was

Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, and Cleveland

In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme court ruled that

"separate but equal" facilities were constitutional

Blacks who violated the Jim Crow laws or other elements of the South's racial code were often subject to


The presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes began with

sharp class conflict and a national railroad strike.

The fundamental attitude of Hayes and other Republican administrations toward labor agitation was

strong support for the railroads and other business in their efforts to crush labor organizing.

Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in

the use of federal troops during strikes

One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the United States was to

dig for gold

The Pendleton Act required people applying for many federal government jobs to

take a competitive examination

The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for

its viciously personal attacks between the two candidates

When he was president, Grover Cleveland's strong belief in a laissez-faire approach to government gained the support of

business people

Benjamin Harrison's victory over Grover Cleveland in the election of 1888 was unusual in that

Harrison lost the popular vote to Cleveland but won in the electoral college.

The tariff bill, sponsored by the talented Congressman William McKinley of Ohio, provided for

sky-high tariff rates that stirred rural discontent

An epidemic of violent strikes and labor conflict in 1892 led to the prospect of

the Populists adding industrial workers to their base of support among farmers

The conservative white Bourbon Democrats of the South largely succeeded in crushing the Populist revolt by

appealing to poor white farmers' anti-black racial feelings against their economic interests

The early Populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in

a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South

The political developments of the 1890s were largely shaped by

The most severe and extended economic depression up to that time

Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader

William Jennings Bryan

President Cleveland's hostility to silver and silver-backed currency was driven primarily by his fear that

the growing drain of gold from the U.S. Treasury would force the United States off the gold standard

President Grover Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of

borrowing 65$ million in gold from J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate

President Cleveland's response to the depression of the 1890s demonstrated that he

was unable to deal effectively with such a massive economic crisis

Much of the investment funds that enabled American to industrialize in the late nineteenth century came from

private foreign investors

During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons

built their railroads with federal land grants and loans

The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with

land grants and loans

Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur.
A. James J. Hill
B. Cornelius Vanderbilt
C. Leland Stanford

1. Central Pacific
2. New York Central
3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
4. Great Norther

A-4, B-2, C-1

The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it

united the nation into a single, integrated national market.

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was

the railroad network

The two industries that the transcontinental railroads most significantly expanded were

mining and agriculture

Which of the following was not among the common forms of corruption practiced by the wealthy railroad barons?

Forcing their employees to buy railroad company stock

In the case of Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois, the U.S. Supreme Court held that state legislatures could not regulate railroads because

railroads were interstate businesses and could not be regulated by any single state.

One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it

represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business

When Europeans owned or invested in private companies in the United States, they generally

let Americans manage the business unless there was an economic crisis.

The single largest source of a critical raw material that fueled early American industrialization was the

Mesabi iron range of Minnesota.

The vast, integrated, continental U.S. market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward

mass manufacturing of standardized industrial products

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

elimination of as much competition as possible.

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise
A. Andrew Carnegie
B. John D. Rockefeller
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
D. James Duke

1. steel
2. oil
3. tobacco
4. banking

A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise
A. Andrew Carnegie
B. John D. Rockefeller
C. J. Pierpont Morgan

1. interlocking directorate
2. trust
3. vertical integration
4. pool

A-3, B-2, C-1

John D. Rockefeller's organizational technique of horizontal integration involved

forcing small competitors to assign stock to Standard oil or lose their business.

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