In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled in the Dred Scott decision that
protection of slavery was guaranteed in all the territories of the West
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin
intended to show the cruelty of slavery.
Uncle Tom's Cabin may be described as
a powerful political force
As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, many northerners
would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law
The roots of Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery sentiments lay in the
evangelical religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening
Hinton R. Helper's book, The Impending Crisis of the South, argued that those who suffered most from slave labor were
nonslaveholding southern whites
In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid 1850's,____________ was/were identified with the proslavery element, and _____________ was/were associated with the antislavery free-soilers
The Lecompton Constitution; the New England Immigrant Aid Society
The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of _______________ in the territories.
Match each figure with their role in the 1856 A. John C. Fremont B. Millard Fillmore C. Stephen A. Douglas D. James Buchanan
1. Democratic nominee for president 2. Republican nominee for president 3. Know-Nothing (American Party) nominee for president 4. Too tainted by Kansas-Nebraska Act to obtain Democratic nomination
A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
In the presidential election of 1856, the Republicans
revealed astonishing strength for a brand-new party
The real significance of the election of 1856 was that it
foreshadowed an ominous sectional clash over slavery in the election of 1860.
In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court
argued that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the federal territories
Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Dred Scot Decision, (B) Lincoln-Douglas Debates, (C) Kansas-Nebraska Act, and (D) Harpers Ferry raid.
For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was that
Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory
As a result of the panic of 1857, the South
believed that it was economically superior to the North.
In the North, the panic of 1857 created calls for
free homesteads and higher protective tariffs.
The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as
largely a failure until his meteoric rise after 1854.
As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates
Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate
Stephen A. Douglas argued, in his Freeport Doctrine, during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that
slavery would stay down if the people voted it down
After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded that
the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" Republicans.
Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 Republican party presidential nomination in part because he
had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward
Match each presidential candidate in the 1860 election topic of slavery A. Abraham Lincoln B. Stephen Douglas C. John Breckenridge D. John Bell
1. Extend slavery into the territories 2. ban slavery from the territories 3. preserve the Union by compromise 4. enforce popular sovereignty
A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
In the election of 1860, the Constitutional Union party was formed
as a middle-of-the-road party fearing for the break up of the union.
"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that
the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.
President James buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of the following reasons except
he believed that the Constitution allowed secession
Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because
he had been elected on a platform that opposed the extension of slavery
Secessionists supported leaving the Union for all of the following reasons except
they believed that Republicans had been infiltrating their political ranks.
In declaring their independence, the Confederate States relied heavily on the example of the
principles of self-dtermination of the Declaration of Independence
The immense debt owed to northern creditors by the South was
repudiated by the South.
President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution.
hopelessly divided the democratic party
President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as
a middle of the road solution.
In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union, President Lincoln
used legally dubious methods
The Border States offered all of the following advantages except
large navigable rivers
Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery
revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies.
During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of present-day Oklahoma
supported the Confederacy.
In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union
waged war on them and herded them onto reservations
To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to
fight the invading Union army to a draw.
All of the following were similar characteristics that both Union and Confederate soldiers shared except
poor unskilled workers were well represented among both armies.
Johnny Reb tended to be all of the following except
detached personally from the war.
Billy Yank tended to be all of the following except
Of all the hardships faced by the soldiers during the civil War, the greatest was
The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was its
The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was its
Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to
the South's rickety transportation system
Northern soldiers eventually became known for their
discipline and determination
To find effective high-level commanders, the Union
used trial and error
A supposed asset fro the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was
intervention from Britain and France
On reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during the Civil War was that
they feared losing Northern grain shipments
The South believed that the British would come to its aid because
Britain was dependent on Southern cotton
During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by
the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from a British ship.
During the Civil War, diplomacy for the Union and the Confederacy
was critical for both
Confederate commerce-raiders such as the Alabama
proved effective against Union shipping
Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was a clear violation of
the Monroe Doctrine
America's minister to Britain, during the Civil War, under President Lincoln was
Charles Francis Adams
France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico
when the United States threatened to force France to leave.
During the Civil War
relations between the Union and Canada were at times very poor
The Southern cause was weakened by
the concept of states' rights that Confederacy professed.
As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis
defied rather than was led by public opinion
The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North
had a long-established and fully recognized government.
As president of the confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because
of the South's emphasis on states' rights
To fill the army's demand for troops, prior to 1863, the North relied mainly on
In Lincoln's attempts to preserve the Union, he did all of the following questionable actions as president except
refused to implement a draft, or conscription law, during the war
The Union's establishment of the National Banking System
was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.
During the Civil War, the Union
launched a new national banking system
As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy
greatly expanded its industrial and technological productivity
Possessing _____ percent of the nation wealth in 1860, the South claimed only ____ percent in 1870.
During the Civil War, women in the North
had new opportunities opened to them in industry.
The Exodusters' westward massmigration to Kansas finally faltered when
steamboat captains refused to transport more former slaves across the Mississippi.
The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's Bureau were in
The white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as
a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance
In President Andrew Johnson's view, the Freedmen's Bureau was
a meddlesome agency that should be killed.
Andrew Johnson had been put on Lincoln's ticket as vice president in his second term
to appeal to War Democrats and pro-Union southerners
As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a reputation as a(n)
champion of the poor whites.
The controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the Confederate states to the Union demonstrated
the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress
In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised
rapid readmission of Southern states into the Union.
_______________believed that the Southern states had completely left the Union and were therefore, "conquered provinces" than terms Congress demanded
For congressional Republicans, one of the most troubling aspects of the Southern states' quick restoration to the Union was that
with the black population fully counted, the South would be stronger than ever in nation politics
The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode into the open was
Johnson's veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen's Bureau.
The first and only ex-Confederate state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment in 1866 and thus be immediately readmitted to the Union was
The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed
citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves
The Fourteenth Amendment
prohibited ex-Confederate leaders from holding public office
Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 prompted Congress to seek passage of
The Fourteenth Amendment
In the 1866 congressional elections
voters endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction
The root cause of the battle between Congress and President Andrew Johnson was
Johnson's "soft" treatment of the white South
Many feminist leaders were especially disappointed with the Fourteenth Amendment because it
specified for the first time in the Constitution that only males could vote.
Which of the following was not among the functions provided by the black Union League?
Helping blacks migrate from the South to the North
Blacks in the South relied on the Union League to
educate them on their civic duties.
During Reconstruction, African American women assumed new political roles, which included all of the following except
Which one of the following is least related to the other four? (Ch. 22-Reconstruction)
Ku Klux Klan
Radical Reconstruction state governments
passed much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms
Political corruption during Reconstruction was
common in both North and South
The Ku Klux Klan could best be described as
a secret terrorist organization.
In 1867, Secretary of State Seward achieved the Johnson administration's greatest success in foreign relations when he
purchased Alaska from Russia
Johnson was narrowly acquitted on the impeachment charges because
it was finally recognized that the charges were dubious and political
All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson except
Johnson promised to step down as president
Reconstruction might have been more successful if
Thaddeus Stevens's radical program of drastic economic reforms and stronger protection of political rights had been enacted
The Freedmen's Bureau
was quite successful at providing education for former slaves.
Despite his status as a military hero, General Ulysses S. Grant proved to be a weak political leader because he
had no political experience and was a poor judge of character.
In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
owed his victory to the votes of former slaves.
In the aftermath of the Civil War
waste, speculation, and corruption afflicted both business and government.
New York's notoriously corrupt Boss Tweed was finally jailed under the pressure of
New York Times exposes and the cartoons of Thomas Nast.
The Credit Mobilier scandal involved
railroad construction kickbacks.
The Liberal Republican revolt from the regular Republican party in 1972 was motivated primarily by
disgust at the corruption and scandals of the Grant administration
President Ulysses S. Grant was reelected in 1872 because
the Democrats and Liberal Republicans chose the eccentric editor Horace Greeley as their candidate
Match each politician below with the Republican faction associated A. Roscoe Conkling B. James Blaine C. Horace Greeley D. Ulysses Grant
1. "Half-Breeds" 2. Stalwarts 3. Regular Republicans 4. Liberal Republicans
A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
One result of Republican hard money policies in the mid-1870s was
a political turn to the Democrats and new Greenback Labor party
Those who enjoyed a successful political career in the post-Civil War decades were usually
The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s
aroused enormous turnouts among voters even though there were few significant issues
In religious and cultural terms, the Republicans appealed especially to groups that derived their views from the
Puritan tradition of strict moral codes and government regulation of morality and society
One reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age was
sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties
Which of the following was not among the groups that formed the solid political base of the Republican party in the late nineteenth century
Northern Big Cities
The Compromise of 1877 resulted in
the withdrawal of federal troops and abandonment of black rights in the South.
The sequence of presidential terms of the "forgettable presidents" of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland's two nonconsecutive terms) was
Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, and Cleveland
In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme court ruled that
"separate but equal" facilities were constitutional
Blacks who violated the Jim Crow laws or other elements of the South's racial code were often subject to
The presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes began with
sharp class conflict and a national railroad strike.
The fundamental attitude of Hayes and other Republican administrations toward labor agitation was
strong support for the railroads and other business in their efforts to crush labor organizing.
Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in
the use of federal troops during strikes
One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the United States was to
dig for gold
The Pendleton Act required people applying for many federal government jobs to
take a competitive examination
The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for
its viciously personal attacks between the two candidates
When he was president, Grover Cleveland's strong belief in a laissez-faire approach to government gained the support of
Benjamin Harrison's victory over Grover Cleveland in the election of 1888 was unusual in that
Harrison lost the popular vote to Cleveland but won in the electoral college.
The tariff bill, sponsored by the talented Congressman William McKinley of Ohio, provided for
sky-high tariff rates that stirred rural discontent
An epidemic of violent strikes and labor conflict in 1892 led to the prospect of
the Populists adding industrial workers to their base of support among farmers
The conservative white Bourbon Democrats of the South largely succeeded in crushing the Populist revolt by
appealing to poor white farmers' anti-black racial feelings against their economic interests
The early Populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in
a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South
The political developments of the 1890s were largely shaped by
The most severe and extended economic depression up to that time
Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader
William Jennings Bryan
President Cleveland's hostility to silver and silver-backed currency was driven primarily by his fear that
the growing drain of gold from the U.S. Treasury would force the United States off the gold standard
President Grover Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of
borrowing 65$ million in gold from J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate
President Cleveland's response to the depression of the 1890s demonstrated that he
was unable to deal effectively with such a massive economic crisis
Much of the investment funds that enabled American to industrialize in the late nineteenth century came from
private foreign investors
During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons
built their railroads with federal land grants and loans
The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with
land grants and loans
Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur. A. James J. Hill B. Cornelius Vanderbilt C. Leland Stanford
1. Central Pacific 2. New York Central 3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe 4. Great Norther
A-4, B-2, C-1
The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it
united the nation into a single, integrated national market.
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was
the railroad network
The two industries that the transcontinental railroads most significantly expanded were
mining and agriculture
Which of the following was not among the common forms of corruption practiced by the wealthy railroad barons?
Forcing their employees to buy railroad company stock
In the case of Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois, the U.S. Supreme Court held that state legislatures could not regulate railroads because
railroads were interstate businesses and could not be regulated by any single state.
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business
When Europeans owned or invested in private companies in the United States, they generally
let Americans manage the business unless there was an economic crisis.
The single largest source of a critical raw material that fueled early American industrialization was the
Mesabi iron range of Minnesota.
The vast, integrated, continental U.S. market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward
mass manufacturing of standardized industrial products
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
elimination of as much competition as possible.
Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise A. Andrew Carnegie B. John D. Rockefeller C. J. Pierpont Morgan D. James Duke
1. steel 2. oil 3. tobacco 4. banking
A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise A. Andrew Carnegie B. John D. Rockefeller C. J. Pierpont Morgan
1. interlocking directorate 2. trust 3. vertical integration 4. pool
A-3, B-2, C-1
John D. Rockefeller's organizational technique of horizontal integration involved
forcing small competitors to assign stock to Standard oil or lose their business.
America's first billion-dollar corporation was
United States Steel
The first major product of the oil industry was
The oil industry became a huge business
with the invention of the internal combustion engine
The "Gospel of Wealth" endorsed by Andrew Carnegie
held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility in the use of their God-given money
Although they were commonly called "Social Darwinists," advocates of economic, national, or racial "survival of the fittest" ideas actually drew less on biologist Charles Darwin than on
British laissez-faire economists like Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo
Believers in the doctrine of "survival of the fittest," like Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner, believed that
the wealthy deserved their riches because they had demonstrated greater abilities than the poor.
To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
incorporate big business
In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted __________ manufacturing to the new South
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock
The group whose lives were most dramatically altered by the new industrial age was
Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following except
new educational requirements for jobs
The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented a(n)
romantic ideal of the independent and athletic new woman
Which one of the following is least like the other four? Closed shop, Lockout, Yellow Dog Contract, Blacklist, or Company Town?
Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
independent workers and craftsmen
Match each labor organization with the correct description. A. National Labor Union B. Knights of Labor C. American Federation of Labor
1. the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration 2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s 3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
A-2, B-1, C-3
One group, barred from membership in the Knights of Labor, was
The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when
labor would own and operate businesses and industries
The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was
a trend that affected Europe as well
The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was the
availability of industrial jobs
In 1900, the two largest cities in the world were
London and New York City
One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was
large department stores
Which one of the following has the least in common with the other four? Slums, Dumbbell tenements, Bedroom Communities, Flophouses, or the "Lung Block"?
American cities increasingly abandoned wooden construction for brick and steel in their downtown districts after
the great Chicago fire of 1871
Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape
the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy
A bird of passage was an immigrant who
came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe
By the late nineteenth century, most of the Old Immigrant groups from northern and Western Europe
had largely abandoned their ethnically based churches, clubs, and neighborhoods.
New Immigrant groups were regarded with special hostility by many nativist Americans because
their religions were distinctly different and some New Immigrants were politically radical
The European diaspora to the Americas, Africa, Australia, and elsewhere was largely a by-product of the
initial mass migration of European rural populations to that continent's big cities
Prominent Protestant pastors like Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden argued that
the Christian Gospel required that churches address poverty and other burning social issues of the day
In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants
rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture
The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by
creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and accomodationists who supported it
In the 1890s, white collar positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for
The vast majority of employed female workers in the late nineteenth century were
Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following except