Russian Revolution - Unit 7 - History Set 2015

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Czar Alexander II
Was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland.
Alexander was the most successful Russian reformer since Peter the Great. His most important achievement was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, for which he became known as "Alexander the Liberator."
Czar Nicholas II
Was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. Nicknamed "Nicholas the Bloody." Under his rule, Russia was humiliatingly defeated in the Russo-Japanese War, which saw the almost total annihilation of the Russian Baltic Fleet at the Battle of Tsushima.

-Married Alexander III's daughter
-Left to lead troops in WWI personally,
-left Russia to be taken care of by
-Wife+Rasputin
-bad communication, didn't know how
-bad things were at home
-Stepped down the day the Duma assumes control (March 12)
Czar Alexander III
Was Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland from March 13th, 1881 until his death on November 1st, 1894. He was highly conservative and reversed some of the liberal reforms of his father, Alexander II. During Alexander's reign Russia fought no major wars, for which he was styled "The Peacemaker." However, he stopped liberalization and put Russia in 60 yrs. of stasis.

(?) The first ruler during Russian Revolution
dictator, imposed vicious rules.
Queen Alexandra
-Nicholas' wife
-left to take care of Russia when Czar left for army
-trusted Rasputin, which led to people distrusting her
-gave Rasputin too much credit because he said he could save her son
Romanovs
Was the second imperial dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, which reigned from 1613 until the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
Bolsheviks
Group of Russian Social Democrats created out of the Marxist Social Democratic Party under leadership of Vladimir Lenin. Lenin made the Bolsheviks more prone to violence,
promised to return land to peasants, transfer factories and industries from capitalists to committees of workers, and change power from Prov. Gov. to the Soviets. They win the Russian Civil war, and the Bolsheviks are later renamed the Communists.

3 Bolshevik Propaganda slogans:
"Peace, Land, Bread"
"Worker Control of Production"
"All Power to the Soviets"
Mensheviks
Other group besides the Bolsheviks, wanted a mass electoral socialist party based on a Western model.
The Duma
-A legislative body created by Czar Nicholas.
-It was originally ignored by Czar
Nicholas and it had no real power (Czar tried to disband it)
-after the Czar is taken down the Duma takes control
-Duma meets on March 12 and declares that it is assuming control of the gov.
-Establishes the Provisional Gov.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
March 3, 1918, was signed by Lenin. The treaty made Lenin's group give up: Eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic Provinces. People were NOT happy with this treaty.
Rasputin
-Supposed to help the queen's son
-gained trust of the queen, she believed he had magical powers
-gained influence when Czar Nicholas was gone because of devotion from queen
-people lost faith in the queen and Czar because they didn't trust Rasputin and because he was supposed to be magical and they were skeptics
-after he is assassinated in Dec. 1916 the monarchy quickly falls
February/March Revolution
Beginning of March 1917, strikes break out in capital Petrograd. Leadership ability of Czar is questioned. Gov. has corruption.

The immediate cause of the February Revolution-the first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917-was Russia's disastrous involvement in World War I (1914-18). Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and moderates joined Russian radical elements in calling for the overthrow of the czar.

-bread price increased
-women waited in long lines, and eventually led marches to demonstrate their unhappiness
-10,000 women marched chanting "Peace and Bread," and "Down With Autocracy"
-successfully shut down all the factories in the city
-Czar Nicholas ordered soldiers to shoot, but the soldiers eventually also joined the rallies
Bolshevik Revolution
1917-1918, the aftermath of the February Revolution. Also called the October Revolution.
In short, revolutionaries overthrew Czar Nicholas and Provisional Gov., and brought Bolsheviks led by Lenin to power.

Lenin became the virtual dictator of the first Marxist state in the world. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry and distributed land, but beginning in 1918 had to fight a devastating civil war against anti-Bolshevik White Army forces. In 1920, the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established.
Bloody Sunday
1905, protestors were shot in public when trying to give a petition to Czar Nicholas II of Russia. Demonstrated the consequences of a Czarist autocracy. The events in St. Petersburg provoked public outrage and a series of massive strikes that spread quickly throughout the industrial centers of the Russian Empire. The massacre on Bloody Sunday is considered to be the start of the active phase of the Revolution of 1905.
Indoctrination
Often refers to religious ideas, when you're talking about a religious environment that doesn't let you question or criticize those beliefs. The Latin word for "teach," doctrina is the root of indoctrinate, and originally that's just what it meant.
Russification
-A form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
-Russia spreading its culture (taking over).
"Peace Land Bread"
Was one of the Bolshevik's propaganda slogans. The other two were: "Worker Control of Production," and "All Power to the Soviets." The Bolsheviks were able to gain more support from Moscow and Petrograd.
Vladimir Ulianov (Lenin)
Lenin played a senior role in orchestrating the October Revolution of 1917, in which a Bolshevik coup overthrew the Provisional Government before establishing a new government, the Council of People's Commissars, with Lenin as its chairman. Introducing radical land reform and permitting non-Russian nations to cede from the Empire, they transformed the country into the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

-1887 turned into the enemy of Czarist Russia when his older brother was killed for planning to assassinate the Czar
-arrested for revolutionary activity multiple times
-went to prison in Siberia, exiled in Switzerland
-gained leadership of the Bolsheviks
-his death in 1924 leads to Stalin's rise to power
Leon Trotsky
-Marxist revolutionary and theorist
-Soviet politician
-founder and first leader of the Red Army
-initially supported the Menshevik Internationalists faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
-chairman of the Provisional Gov. at first, later joins Soviets
Joseph Stalin
-A dictator who seized control of Russia in the 1920s
-wanted to rapidly industrialize Russia
-his multiple 5-year plans
-helped industrialize and increase the production of heavy machinery
-was a crazy mass murder who starved the peasantry and eliminated his enemies through violent ways
Alexander Kerensky
-lawyer
-major political leader before the Russian Revolutions of 1917
-belonged to Trudoviks (social party)
-leader of the Provisional Gov.
-decided to stay in the war (WW1), but it was a mistake
Romanov's Provisional Government
-created by the Duma after Czar Nicholas steps down
-led by Alexander Kerensky

The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention.
Communist Party
a political party based on the principles of Marxism
believed that most economic activity (such as factories, banks, and farming) should be owned or controlled by the government
War Communism
The name of the economic system that existed in Russia from 1918-1921. Introduced by Lenin, was meant to combat the economic problems brought on by the civil war in Russia. It was a combo of emergency measures and socialist dogma. It was very hypocritical and severely failed.

-First step was the nationalization of land. Private capitalism was eliminated.
-Food distribution was more closely monitored
-6 principles:
----production is run by the state, state control over the labor of every citizen, state should produce its own undertakings (controlled the activities of peasants), extreme centralization is introduced, state is the sole producer of everything (caused STARVATION), money is to be abolished.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Established Feb 1921, Policy created by Lenin that was meant to replace the horrible mistake of War communism. Was a huge success and it saved Russia.

-It put a tax back on food to restore the market/ economy
-policy brought power back to Lenin
-expanded Russia's base
-people were opposed to it because
those who benefitted from it were enemies of socialism
-it would essentially be like giving up socialism
-the NEP brought Lenin and the Bolsheviks back into political power
Great Purges
The Great Purge was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938. It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs," imprisonment, and arbitrary executions.

The purge was motivated by the desire to remove dissenters from the Communist Party and to consolidate the authority of Joseph Stalin. Most public attention was focused on the purge of the leadership of the Communist Party, as well as of government bureaucrats and leaders of the armed forces, most of whom were Party members.
Collectivization
Collectivization was a policy of forced consolidation of individual peasant households into collective farms called "kolkhozes" as carried out by the Soviet government in the late 1920's - early 1930's.
5 Year Plans
-Were a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Stalin.
-The real goal was to change the agricultural Soviet Union into a more industrialized country.
-First he emphasized max. production of capital goods and armaments, and increased the production of machinery, oil production increased, and the steel production.
-He also eliminated private farms to create agricultural surpluses.
Karl Marx/ Marxism
Was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.

Marx's theories about society, economics and politics—the collective understanding of which is known as Marxism—hold that human societies progress through class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed laboring class that provides the labour for production. States, Marx believed, were run on behalf of the ruling class and in their interest while representing it as the common interest of all;[9] and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power and eventually establish a classless society, communism, a society governed by a free association of producers.
Emancipation
The fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions; liberation. The freeing of someone from slavery.
In this case, Czar Alexander II freed the serfs.
Woman's March
On March 8, 1917, demonstrators clamoring for bread took to the streets of the Russian capital of Petrograd. Supported by 90,000 men and women on strike, the protesters clashed with police, refusing to leave the streets. On March 10, the strike spread among Petrograd's workers, and irate mobs of workers destroyed police stations. Several factories elected deputies to the Petrograd Soviet ("council) of workers, following the model devised during the Revolution of 1905.

On March 11, the troops of the Petrograd army garrison were called out to quell the uprising. In some encounters, regiments opened fire, killing demonstrators, but the protesters kept to the streets, and the troops began to waver. That day, Nicholas again dissolved the Dumas. When the frustrated Russian army at Petrograd unexpectedly switched their support to the demonstrators, the imperial government was forced to resign and a provisional government was established. Three days later, Nicholas formally abdicated his throne, effectively ending nearly four centuries of czarist rule in Russia.
Manifesto
A public declaration of policy and aims, especially one issued before an election by a political party or candidate.
Russo-Japanese War
1904-1905 between Russia and Japan over rival territorial claims
Japan won, became world power
The Gulags (Prison Camps)
Was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems (for Jews) during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s. The first such camps were created in 1918 and the term is widely used to describe any forced labor camp in the USSR.
Soviets
Citizens of the Soviet Union
USSR
Name for the Soviet Union, also known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Autocracy
A system of government by one person with absolute power.
Causes of the Russian Revolution
The failure of the Russian Revolution of 1917 involved the collapse of an empire under Czar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. It sparked the beginning of a new era in Russia that had effects on countries around the world.

-Peasant poverty
-a growing and politicized Urban workforce
-Czarist Autocracy and lack of representation
-ineffective government
- alienated military
Mensheviks Vs. Bolsheviks
Mensheviks - wanted a form of democracy
Bolsheviks - wanted Communism

The Mensheviks wanted to follow a more evolutionary path, as opposed to revolutionary, and did not want to overthrow the current government. They sought to improve the existing conditions. This mostly Proletariat party had some intelligentsia, but was mass based for the most part. Unlike the Bolsheviks, this was truly a party of the Proletariat, not over them. The Mensheviks were much more aligned with the ideology of Marx, in comparison to their opponents.
Sides in the Russian Civil War
The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoring monarchism, capitalism, and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants.

-The Red Army won b/c of Leon Trotsky's well-disciplined, skilled, organized, and formidable troops. They had a single goal, were inspired by their vision of a new Socialist order, and had determination. Could transform their revolutionary fervor into weapons.
-White army unsuccessful b/c of their disunity and political differences caused distrust between soldiers
How and Why the Bolsheviks Won
Won in 1920 civil war.

The OVERTHROW of Russia's Czar Nicholas II in February 1917 wasn't planned out by Lenin. It was the spontaneous result of the accumulated hatred of the Russian people bursting out in mass demonstrations that paralyzed Petrograd and other cities. Within a matter of days, the once all-powerful regime was isolated, its army and security forces refusing orders to defend it--and the Czar was forced to abdicate.

Russia in 1917 was a society devastated by poverty and the slaughter of the First World War. Just a few years earlier, the start of the war had been accompanied by a patriotic frenzy, and the ranks of socialists committed to the principle of opposing imperialism--not only in Russia, but around the world--were reduced to a tiny few. But the horrors of the war, combined with famine and mass suffering as the regime imposed austerity to keep the war effort going, turned the tide.
Economic Polices and Leaderships of Lenin Vs. Stalin
Lenin: more of a socialist dictator, wanted to create a classless society with production in the hands of the people. Allowed some private businesses, he also allowed the peasants to hold land. The standard of living under him for workers/peasants increases.

Stalin: wanted to make the USSR into a modern industrial power with all production under gov. control. He used violence to eliminate those in his way. He also brought all agriculture under gov. control and forced the peasants to live on collectivized farms. The standard of living under him for workers/peasants decreases.

Both: used the secret police to enforce Communist will. They both wanted to bring about a worldwide Communist Revolution. Both ruled with an iron fist.
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