8th Grade U.S. History Unit 3 - Review
Terms in this set (38)
Significance of 1776
The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson
Significance of 1787
The US Constitution was written by James Madison
Strength of the Articles of Confederation
First form of gov't for the New Republic, created the Land Ordinance of 1785, created the Northwest Ordinance, outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territories.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
No executive or judicial branches, no power to enforce laws, Shay's rebellion showed gov't couldn't keep order and a stronger gov't was needed, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade, no army, no foreign respect, territorial disputes, needed unanimous vote to amend, decisions were not mandatory.
What was the Northwest Ordinance?
An ordinance which described how the Northwest Territory would be governed. Also described how new states would be admitted to the United States.
Explain the details of the Northwest Ordinance? (5000/60000/Issues of slavery)
New states admitted equally, decided how the territories would become states, guaranteed freedom of religion, civil liberties and free public education, and divided the
land evenly. 5,000 free white males were required for a territory to elect a bicameral legislature; 60,000 people were needed for the territory to apply for Statehood; and the issue of slavery was originally decided by Popular Sovereignty but later was banned entirely
The Virginia Plan
Supported by the large states at the Philadelphia Convention. Two houses in the legislature. Both houses representation would be determined by population.
The New Jersey Plan
Supported by the smaller states at the Philadelphia
Convention. One house in the legislature. Each state had one vote in the legislature.
The Great Compromise
Legislature would have 2 houses;
Senate would have an equal number of representatives from each state (New Jersey Plan);
House of Representatives would be based on state's population (Virginia Plan).
The 3/5 Compromise
Needed to determine who would be included in a state's
"population" for representation and taxes. Northern states wanted slaves to count for taxation but not representation. Southern states wanted slaves to count for representation not taxation. 3/5 of the slaves would count for both.
What is representative government
Government in which elected officials represent the people.
Why is representative government popular in colonial America
Because the Americans wanted people to be the source of
Why was the US Constitution necessary?
The articles of confederation weren't working and did not provide the power necessary for the central government to fulfill its purpose
Explain the arguments (point of view) of the Federalists regarding the U.S. Constitution.
Supported the Constitution. Wanted a strong central government with a strong executive branch.
Explain the arguments (point of view) of the Anti-Federalists regarding the U.S. Constitution.
Did not support the Constitution without a bill of rights. Wanted to make sure individual rights would be protected and that the government would not become too powerful.
Principle of the Constitution: Limited Government
Everyone must obey the law and the constitution defines the limits of those in power. (Senator can be charged with a crime if committed.)
Principle of the Constitution: Separation of Powers
Government divided into three branches.
Legislative - makes the laws,
Executive - enforces the laws,
Judicial - interprets the laws. (A congressman cannot make a treaty alone with another country.)
Principle of the Constitution: Checks and Balances
Each branch exercises checks or controls over the other branches so no one branch becomes too powerful. (President power to veto; congress power to override the veto)
Principle of the Constitution: Republicanism
Principle of the Constitution: Federalism
Power is shared between the federal government and the states. (Texas state laws, national laws)
Principle of the Constitution: Popular Sovereignty
Political power rests with the people. "We the People!" (Marriage laws)
Principle of the Constitution: Individual Rights
Everyone has rights protected by the Bill of Rights. (Children, Adults, and Seniors)
What are the rights guaranteed in the 1st Amendment?
Religion, Speech, Petition, Press, Assembly
When can the US Constitution or an amendment be changed?
At any time when people deem it necessary
What is the process of changing the US Constitution?
An Amendment is proposed in Congress and is approved by a 2/3 vote of both houses in Congress, or by 2/3 vote by the states to have a Constitutional Convention where amendment(s) are submitted and the amendment(s) is then ratified by 3/4 of the state legislatures
Complete this sentence: In order for an amendment to be changed
another amendment must be proposed to change it and it must be approved by 3/4 of the state legislatures
Identify grievances addressed in the Declaration of Independence that can be found in the Bill of Rights.
Quartering of Troops in private homes, right to due process, writs of assistance (search warrants), trial by jury of peers where it happened, rights to the states
Identify grievances addressed in the Declaration of Independence that can be found in the US Constitution.
No Taxation without Representation, Abuses by Elected officials, King forbids government to pass laws, King dissolves representative legislatures
Described how the Northwest Territory would be government and set conditions for settlement and settlers rights.
a settlement of differences with each side making concessions.
Articles of Confederation
document that outlined the form of gov't for the U.S. and included a weak central government. (1st official government)
series of essays supporting ratification of the US Constitution and responding to Anti-Federalists attacks.
Government authority comes from the people.
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the US Constitution
a person who played a major role in declaring independence, fighting the American Revolution or writing and adopting the US Constitution.
form of government in which citizens delegate authority to elected representatives.
an alteration of or addition to a motion, bill, constitution, etc
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