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90 terms

Anatomy and Physiology I Final

All possible questions on Final exam
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What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?
To maintain homeostasis
An oblique cut is one that is
diagonally between the vertical and horizontal
A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be an
an organ
Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life?
Decay
Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?
Dorsal
Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms?
Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except...
palms turned posteriorly
A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ...
enhancement of labor contractions
Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane?
any sagittal plane except the median
The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane
lining the thoracic cavity
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains
a relatively stable internal environment, within limits
In which cavities are the lungs located?
pleural , ventral, and thoracic
In which abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?
left upper
Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance?
It is considered the cause of most diseases.
The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following?
Brain
One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to ..
sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called?
frontal
Which is NOT in the mediastinum?
Lungs
The change that a cell undergoes from an unspecialized one to a specialized one is called
differentiation
A feedback system consists of three basic components: q control center, a receptor, and a..
and effector
Any stimulus that tends to create and imbalance in the internal environment is known as
stress
The process of using energy to build p the body's structural and functional components is called
anabolism
When your digestive enzymes chemically break down beef proteins into their subunits (amino acids), this would be an example of
catabolism
If the number of a person's catabolic reactions are greater than his or her anabolic reactions , then this person is
losing weight
Growth by assimilation is
anabolic
The thorax is separated from the abdomen by the
diaphragm
The abdomino-pelvic cavity is divided into quadrants by horizontal and vertical lines passing through the
umbilicus
In which quadrant is the pain of appendicitis likely to be felt
right lower
In general, the lipids that we refer to as oils have
a high degree of unsaturated bonds
The genetic information is coded in DNA by the
sequence of the nucleotides
Which of the following is not true of proteins?
They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information
Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of
glycogen
A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with
the consumption of energy
A solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being
very acidic
Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?
CH(4)
What is a chain of 25 amino acids called?
polypeptide
Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their building blocks by the
removal of a water molecule between each two units
Which states about enzymes is false?
Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction
Which of the following statements is false?
Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully
Isotopes of the same element _____ in their atomic masses due to a _________ number of neutrons,.
Differ; different
Which protein types are capable of repairing other proteins that were damaged by stress or heat shock?
Molecular chaperones
What is the neutralization reaction?
HCL + NaOH = NaCL + H2O
Amino Acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) _________ reaction?
dehydration synthesis
Sucrose is a
disaccharide
If the half- life of I-131 is 2 1\2 months, how much radioactivity remains in the thyroid of a patient five months after treatment with this radioisotope?
25%
Which of these statements is true?
Alpha particles are much more massive than beta particles, and if inhaled,inflict much more damage.
With its single, unpaired outer-shell electron, a free radical is
extremely reactive
High energy radiation damages biological tissues because it
ionizes many neutral atoms, resulting in free radical formation
Water is an excellent solvent for most substances, but water will not dissolve
non polar components
An acidic solution is likely to have a great numbeer of
hydrogen ions
A healthy individual has a blood pH of
7.4
Most buffers in the body consist of a
weak acid
If you skip a meal and you later feel a lack of energy, your liver will split stored glycogen into smaller molecules known as
glucose
Lipids are insoluble in water for the simple reason that they are
non-polar
A saturated fat is saturated with
hydrogen
the most plentiful lipids in the body are
triglycerides
Steroids are classified as
lipids
Cell membranes must be both "hydrophobic and hydrophobic . which molecule can serve both of these requirements?
phospholipids
Cholesterol is a
steroid
Hair and nails are structural proteins. What is a good example of a functional protein
digestive enzymes
The number of different types of amino acids in humans is
20
Which statement is false?
Each enzyme can catalyze many different types of reactions
they are easily denatured at several degrees above the body temperature
They are catalysts that are made out of protein
A. each enzyme can catalyze many different type of reactions
Dehydration synthesis is
anabolic
Saturated fats
are more likely to contribute to arteriosclerosis than unsaturated fats
When a phosphate group is added to ADP. energy is being
stored
The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the factory site for protein formation is capable of reading both the nucleic acid and language as well as the protein language. That molecule is known as
tRNA
A red blood cell placed in pure water would
swell and burst
Which of the following describes the plasma membrane
the phospholipid bi-ayer surrounding the cell
Describe diffusion?
the greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
Cell wastes are transported from the blood into the kidney tubules by
filtration
Cell junction include all of the following except
peroxisomes
If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
the cells will lose water and shrink
Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, what best describes the events?
a lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material
Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?
molecular transport through the membrane
Which of the following would not be a constituent of a plasma membrane?
proteolipids
Which of these is an inclusion, not an organelle?
melanin
Passive membrane transport processes include
the movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
Mitochondria
contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
Peroxisomes
are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action
DNA replication
takes place during the S Phase of the cell cycle
Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?
Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
The main component of the cytosol is
water
Lysosomes
contain a powerful digestive enzyme that are potentially dangerous to the cell
The functions of centrioles include
organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in
hypertonic solution
The Na +/ K + pump functions to maintain a concentration gradient such that
potassium levels are high inside the cell and sodium levels are high outside the cell
A cell's membrane has been describe as a fluid mosaic meaning its like a mosaic of _____, in a sea of ____________.
Proteins, Lipids
What is not a function of cell membrane proteins?
key role in aerobic respiration
Intravenous feeding is typically a 5% dextrose solution but this is a starvation diet, and patients will lose weight. Why don't they just administer a 10 % solution
it would result in a hypertonic extracelluler environment
If human cancer tissue were being studied in the laboratory for an extended period of time , the cells would be undoubedly be kept in a solution of nutrients that was
isotonic