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HLTH 1020 Quiz 2 Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7
Terms in this set (63)
Lawrence is an overweight male adult embarking on his first attempt at weight loss. He has heard that in order to lose one pound of fat per week, he should reduce his normal kilocalorie intake by 500 kilocalories per day. What is the theory behind the notion that a 500-kilocalorie daily deficit promotes weight loss of one pound of fat per week?
One pound of fat tissue has 3,500 kilocalories; 3,500 kilocalories divided by 7 days in a week means 500 kilocalories less per day will help him lose one pound of fat per week
Despite advertisements and fad diet promises, there is no quick solution to being overweight. Successful weight loss comes from hard work and commitment. The most reliable approach to weight loss includes all of the following EXCEPT
increased dietary supplement use.
Lawrence notices that most of his body fat is accumulated around his mid-section. His dietitian calls this "upper-body obesity" or "android obesity." The dietitian explains that this body fat distribution is more dangerous from a health standpoint than having fat accumulated around the lower portion of his body. Why is upper-body or android obesity more dangerous than lower-body or gynoid obesity?
Fat from abdominal fat cells goes directly to the liver; this disrupts the liver's ability to use insulin and increases hepatic production of lipoproteins
Recently, Lawrence participated in a scientific study at the local university comparing various methods for measuring percent body fat. He was randomly assigned to the underwater weighing group. After the underwater weighing procedure, it was determined that his body density is 1.03 grams per centimeter3. Using the percent body fat formula, determine what his percent body fat is.
Lawrence is learning that energy imbalance leads to weight fluctuations. When does weight gain occur?
Weight gain occurs when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure
Being underweight can pose as many - if not more - complications as being overweight can. An underweight woman may experience all of the following EXCEPT
increased frequency of menstrual cycles
All of the following statements about the role of protein in the body are correct EXCEPT
protein is the only macronutrient that is not energy yielding
Drag the statement about fat digestion anatomy to its appropriate place on the body; roll over the boxes to reveal the name of the body part
Mouth: Minor fat digestion by salivary lipase.
Stomach: Minor fat digestion by gastric lipase.
Small Intestine: Site of most fat digestion and absorption.
Liver: Secretes bile to emulsify fats.
Pancreas: Secretes pancreatic lipase and other enzymes for fat digestion.
Protein synthesis is a multi-step process. Put the steps of protein synthesis in sequential order
1. The code for DNA needed for synthesis of a specific protein is transferred by mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cell.
2. mRNA travels to the ribosomes where mRNA code is read and translated to produce a specific protein.
3. Transfer RNA (tRNA) adds amino acids one at a time according to the mRNA instructions to form a polypeptide chain.
4. Polypeptide chain twist and folds into a three-dimensional structure of the intended protein.
Regina's soccer coach takes the team out for a celebratory meal following a victory. A teammate orders French fries, noting that they must be healthy because the restaurant menu says the fries are fried in "cholesterol-free" vegetable oil. Which statement about "cholesterol-free" vegetable oil is correct?
All vegetable oil is cholesterol-free because cholesterol is only found in animal foods
Regina is a 22-year-old college student who plays on the soccer team. Her coach brought in a registered dietitian to talk about sports nutrition. The RD recommended minimizing trans fatty acids from processed and packaged foods, but she explained that some trans fats do occur naturally. What foods have naturally-occurring trans fatty acids?
Beef, milk, and butter
Protein-calorie malnutrition can present in young children as either kwashiorkor or marasmus. Identify whether the protein-calorie malnutrition characteristic is that of kwashiorkor or marasmus by dragging it to its appropriate classification.
Appearance is one with swollen belly either swollen liver or edema.
Common in young children who receive a high-starch, low-protein diet, usually as a result of a subsequent child's birth.* Form of protein-calorie malnutrition that develops acutely (rapidly).
Appearance is one with "matchstick" arms and no subcutaneous fat.
Common in infants who receive inadequate calories and protein from the beginning of life. *Form of protein-calorie malnutrition that develops gradually.
Put the steps of fat digestion and absorption in order from first (1) to last occurring event (8).
1. Lipase breaks triglycerides down into monoglycerides and fatty acids in the small intestine.
2. Monoglycerides and fatty acids absorbed by the small intestine cells are repackaged into triglycerides.
3.Small intestine cells package triglycerides into chylomicrons.
4. Chylomicrons enter the lymphatic system and the bloodstream.
5. Triglycerides in the chylomicron are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol by lipoprotein lipase.
6.Fatty acids are released to the body cells and glycerol circulates back to the liver.
7. Muscle cells use absorbed fatty acids immediately for fuel and adipose cells re-form fatty acids into triglycerides for storage.
8. Chylomicron remnant removed from circulation by the liver and its components are recycled to make other lipoproteins and bile acids.
Many animals can survive on plant material alone - even those parts of the plant with very low nutritional value, such as leaves. How can these animals thrive with such poor quality nutrition? First of all, some animals are able to synthesize a broader range of amino acids than humans. Animals that primarily consume low nutrient plant material also have complex digestive systems that process food very slowly and thoroughly to extract the maximum nutrition. Third, the volume of food consumed by leaf and stem feeding animals is also very high. Leaf eaters often spend most of their waking hours eating. In contrast, a carnivore, such as lion, spends very little time eating. Humans can live and thrive on a diet composed entirely of plant material. Pure vegetarians need to be careful in selecting foods to eat to ensure that they get enough of all the essential amino acids. People who eat even a small amount of meat need to be much less concerned with this aspect of their diet. View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of complementary proteins.
Animal protein has an ideal balance of
essential amino acids.
Which of the following contain the most protein?
nuts and seeds
Cooked meat is about
The RDA for protein is
0.8 g/kg of body weight.
If a 170-pound man ate 6,600 grams (14.6 lbs) of cereals, which amino acid would not be consumed in excess of his needs?
View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept
amino acids video
The total amount of protein a person can make will change based on availability of
essential amino acids.
Tryptophan, methionine, threonine, and valine are all
essential amino acids.
What happens to protein synthesis when an essential amino acid is in short supply?
Protein synthesis is limited.
View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.
Protein consumption video
When a person eats more protein than his body needs, the extra protein is
converted to glucose or fat.
When protein is converted to glucose or fat, how is nitrogen eliminated from the body?
through the kidneys
If a 180-pound man eats an adequate, 2200-kcal diet with 15% of kcal from protein, about how much of that protein will be used to build muscles?
Increasing protein from 15% of calories to 30% of calories allows more protein to be used for
Excess dietary protein and amino acids
do not build muscle.
View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept
What type of bonds link individual amino acids together?
The helix that forms in a protein chain as a result of hydrogen bonds and other weak forces is an example of
secondary structure of protein.
In the stable form of protein, what is generally oriented to the interior of the protein molecule?
When an egg is fried, what happens to the protein in the egg?
The protein is denatured
When forming a semi-solid gel such as gelatin, what type of molecule does the process of protein coagulation entrap?
Body Mass Index is a method of comparing
height and weight.
A person with a BMI of 20 would be considered
In August 2001, when Mark McGwire broke the home run record in baseball, his BMI classification was
BMI is often used as a screening test because it is
inexpensive and quick.
An adult with a BMI of 17 would be considered
Why does burning a food item provide information about its value as a food? The nutritional value of food can be measured on many different scales. The most basic measurement scale is the free energy content of the food. In other words, how much energy is released when chemical bonds within the food are broken. The energy content of food is measured in calories, the amount of kinetic energy required to raise the temperature of one ml of water, one degree Celsius. Food is burned under controlled conditions, breaking chemical bonds, and releasing free energy. The burning is chemically similar to the breakdown of food in cellular respiration although the process occurs much more quickly and in a less controlled fashion during ignition. View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.
In a bomb calorimeter, the food chamber is filled with
The amount of heat necessary to raise 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius is
178 grams of salmon has
A 61 gram tomato has
56 grams of cheddar cheese has
Try out the tool below to estimate the energy expense of several types of physical activity. Then, complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.
Energy for Activity video
A 150-pound person who does 30 minutes of running at a general jogging pace, uses approximately how many kcals for this activity?
During which of the following activities would a person use the least number of activity calories?
jogging on a mini-trampoline
How many calories for activity would a 190-pound woman use doing general cleaning around her house for 45 minutes?
How many calories for activity would a 150-pound student use sitting in a 50-minute class?
How many more kcals does a 150-pound student use in 30 minutes of general breaststroke swimming as opposed to 30 minutes of slow freestyle swimming?
Trans fatty acids occur naturally in some foods and are added to other manufactured foods. All of the statements about trans fats are true EXCEPT
A trans fat-free food will never have partially hydrogenated oil listed in its ingredient list.
Determine which component of energy expenditure each scenario represents by dragging the scenario label to its appropriate classification category
Basal Metabolism: Jillian needs a minimum of 1,400 calories to keep her resting, awake body alarm in a warm, quiet environment for 12 hours or more.
Physical Activity: David burns 250 calories raking the leaves in his yard.
Thermic Effect of Food: Sherry's body uses 100 calories to digest, absorb, and process the calories from her day's food intake.
Thermogenesis: Linda's constant nervous twitch burns over 200 calories over the period of one day.
Basal metabolism represents the minimal amount of calories expended in a fasting state (for 12 hours or more) to keep a resting, awake body alive in a warm, quiet environment. Raking leaves is an example of physical activity. The thermic effect of food is the energy needed to digest food, and absorb and further process the nutrients recently consumed. Thermogenesis represents the increase in involuntary physical activity triggered by shivering when cold, fidgeting, maintenance of muscle tone, and maintaining body posture when not lying down.
Drag the descriptor to its appropriate lipoprotein classification.
Chylomicron: carries absorbed lipids from the small intestine to body cells
VLDL: Carries mostly triglycerides taken up from the bloodstream by the liver as well as any fat made by the liver, to body cells.
LDL: Arises from VLDL and carries mostly cholesterol to cells.
HDL: Arises mostly from the liver and intestine and carries cholesterol from cells to other lipoproteins and to the liver for excretion.
Chylomicrons carry dietary fat from the small intestine to cells.
VLDL carries lipids made and taken up by the liver to cells.
LDL carries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells.
HDL contributes to cholesterol removal from cells and, in turn, excretion of it from body.
Lipids are a unique nutrient group, differing significantly from carbohydrates and proteins. All of the following are correct statements about lipids EXCEPT
Phospholipids are the most abundant type of lipids found in the body and in foods.
Because animals store glycogen in their muscles, meat, fish, and poultry are good sources of carbohydrates.
If Lawrence weighs 198 pounds and has an average basal metabolic rate of 1.0 kilocalorie per kilogram per hour, determine his basal metabolic rate
2,160 kilocalories per day
Babies in North America are routinely screened for phenylketonuria (PKU). PKU is a disease characterized by the body's inability to metabolize the essential amino acid _____ and in turn, its inability to convert this essential amino acid to the nonessential amino acid _____.
**Explanation -A person with PKU has a limited ability to metabolize the essential amino acid phenylalanine. Normally, the body uses an enzyme to convert much of our dietary phenylalanine intake into tyrosine
Recommended Dietary Allowances differ for various stages of life and gender. While adult needs for most nutrients are generally greater than those of children, this is not the case for carbohydrate. Because their bodies are developing so quickly, children aged 1-3 have very high carbohydrate needs that are equal to the number of grams of carbohydrate an adult should have each day. What is the RDA for carbohydrate for both children aged 1-3 and adults?
Lawrence meets with a dietitian to develop a weight-loss plan. The dietitian says she will calculate his estimated calorie needs using the Estimated Energy Requirement Calculation for Men 19 years and older. If Lawrence is 54 years old, weighs 198 pounds, is 5'7" (67 inches) tall and has a sedentary activity level, what is his estimated energy requirement?
2500 kilocalories per day
EER for men ages 19 and older = 662 - (9.53 × AGE) + PA × (15.91 × WT in kilograms + 539.6 × HT in meters)
EER = 662 - (9.53 × 54) + 1.0 × (15.91 × 90 kg + 539.6 × 1.7 m)
EER = 662 - (514.62) + 1.0 × (1431.9 + 917.32)
EER = 662 - 514.62 + 2349.22
EER = 2497, round up to 2500 calories
There are four primary categories of energy expenditure. Of the following, which one represents the majority of total energy use by the body?
The New American Plate is a tool that nutrition professionals use to help clients and patients visualize how a healthy plate should look. The New American Plate model recommends that ___ of your plate be filled with plant-based foods like fruits, vegetables, or grains, and that ___ of your plate be filled with meat, fish, poultry, or lowfat dairy.
2/3 (or more); 1/3 (or less)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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