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26 terms

Chapter 8 Vocab (Biology)

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Bacteriophage
Virus that infects bacteria
Nucleotide
Monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
Double Helix
Model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
Base Paring Rules
Rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)
Replication
Process by which DNA is copied
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication
Central Dogma
Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA
Nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
Transcription
Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
RNA Polymerase
Enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
Translation
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
Codon
Sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
Stop Codon
Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
Start Codon
Codon that signals to ribosomes to start being translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
Anticodon
Set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation
Promoter
Section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA
Operon
Section of DNA that contains all of the code to being transcription, regulate transcription, and build a protein; includes a promoter, regulatory gene, and a structural gene
Exon
Sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis
Intron
Segment of gene that does not code for an amino acid
Mutation
Change in the DNA sequence
Point Mutation
Mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide
Frameshift mutation
Mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
Mutagen
Agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms