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Virus that infects bacteria


Monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base

Double Helix

Model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder

Base Paring Rules

Rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)


Process by which DNA is copied

DNA Polymerase

Enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication

Central Dogma

Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins


Nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis


Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA

RNA Polymerase

Enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis


Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced


Sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid

Stop Codon

Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation

Start Codon

Codon that signals to ribosomes to start being translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein


Set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation


Section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA


Section of DNA that contains all of the code to being transcription, regulate transcription, and build a protein; includes a promoter, regulatory gene, and a structural gene


Sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis


Segment of gene that does not code for an amino acid


Change in the DNA sequence

Point Mutation

Mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide

Frameshift mutation

Mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence


Agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms

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