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53 terms

Medication Administration - 12/12/11 - J. Aguiar

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Three ways drugs are classified
clinical indication
body system
chemical class
4 ways a drug can be named
Chemical name
Generic name
Official name
Brand name
Unit dose is measured based on
average 150 lb males
Question unit dose
when giving more than 3 or less than 1/2
when pt is under 150 lbs
when pt is over 150 lbs
Nurse Practice Acts for LPN
LPN's are only able to administer meds from an order..... It is a violation of the NPA to give meds without and order even TYLENOL or TUMS
Regulations of controlled substances
are controlled by the DEA, each shift 2 nurses must count the meds. Meds must be under lock and key, Nurse must always carry key on person
Stock supply
bulk qty kept in a central location
Disadvantage of stock supply
increase risk for med error
Unit dose systen
prescription amount of drug pt receives at a single time
Automated dispensing
computerized system, which is similar to unit dose system
Disadvantage of automated dispensing
can take meds from another part of system
Advantage of automated dispensing
save time in waiting on pharmacy
Intial dose
stronger dose of a medication, ie antibiotic, dejoxen, pain medicine
Maintence dose
keeps the blood level of a drug steady, amount of drug is therapeutic
Maximum dose
largest amount of medication, before the patient experiences toxicity
Average dose
the dose that is most effective, with least amount of side effects
Minimum
smallest amount of medication that can effective
Divided dose
dividing medication breaking 24 hour dose in to smaller doses, to keep blood level steady
Peak
drug is at it's highest concentration
Onset
...
Duration
length of time med shows therapeutic levels
Trough
drug is at the lowest concentation
Amino glycozides
stronger antibiotics, adverse effects include damage to 8th cranial, which results is permanent hearing loss
ototoxic
damage to 8th cranial nerve, damage is permanent
nephrotoxic
is reversible, however it is damage to the kidneys
local effect medications
affects to a particular tissue or organ

vaginal medications
inhalers - lungs
topical creams
systemic effect
meds that targets a system, but goes through the blood stream and cardiac system
substitutive
insulin, B12 replaces body fluids or a chemical needed for improved function
palliative
relieve signs and symptoms of a disease but have effect on the disease
supportive
tylenol, support the integrity of body functions until other meds become effective
chemotherapeutic
antibiotics, destroy disease producing microorganisms
Restorative
vitamins, return the body to or maintains body at optimal health
Adverse reactions Blood
anemia,
Adverse reactions GI
n/v/d, indigestion, constipation, iron constipates, and darkens stool
Adverse reactions CNS
jitters, irritable, drowsy, decreased LOC
Adverse reactions on cardiovascular
tachycardia
bradycardio
HTN
Hypotension
dizziness
shock
Nephrotoxicty signs and symptoms
check I&O
weight
less urine
fluid retention
BUN and creatinine will identify problems with the
kidneys
Adverse reactions on Hepatic
jaundice, white stool, less bile
Adverse reactions on Renal
blood in urine, dark urine, no urine, aneuria and oliguria
Interventions for adverse reactions
document med
hold med
Anaplylactic reaction
swelling, difficulty breathing,hives
Cause of a anaphylatic reaction
is a severe allergic reaction
Common meds that cause anaphylaxsis
Analgesics
Antiseizure
Antibiotics
Iron
Factors that increase the risk for allergic reaction
family history
Advantage of the PO route
easiest
most common
cheaper
PO is the longest form of
medication
What effects absorptions of medicine
food
Disadvantages
...
Pt with acid PH levels
dissolve meds quicker
Zero antacids 2 hour prior to
med admin
antacids cause
alkalinity
Disadvantages of of PO meds
pt can't swallow
non-compliance