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Gravity
Terms in this set (186)
Box plot
a way of graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles
Consecutive
one following the other, for example, 19 and 20 are consecutive numbers
Data
a collection of facts, such as numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things
Dot plot
a graphical display of data using dots
Event
a set of possible outcomes resulting from a particular experiment. For example, a possible event when a single six-sided die is rolled is {5, 6}. That is, the roll could be a 5 or a 6.
Frequency
how often something happens (usually during a period of time)
Function
a special relationship where each input has a single output. It is often written as "f(x)" where x is the input value
Graph
a diagram that shows a relationship among numbers
Histogram
a graphical representation of the distribution of numerical data
Matrix
a rectangular array of numbers or other mathematical objects, for which operations such as addition and multiplication are defined.
Mean
the sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of numbers in a set (AKA average)
Median
a number in the middle of a set of numbers, or the mean of the two middle numbers in a set
Mode
The mode of a set of numbers is the one that occurs most often. So, in the set {1,5,7,5,9}, the mode is 5 because there are 2 fives and only one of each of the others.
Periodicity
the tendency of a function to repeat itself in a regular pattern at established intervals.
Permutation
relates to the act of rearranging, or permuting, all the members of a set into some sequence or order (unlike combinations, which are selections of some members of the set where order is disregarded)
Probability
the chance of an event happening, usually expressed as the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes
Proportion
a statement that two ratios (or fractions) are equal
Rate of change
the change in the value of a quantity divided by the elapsed time
Scientific notation
a number written as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10
Standard deviation
a measure of how spread out numbers are
Table
an organized chart or list of numbers
Unit rate
describes how many units of the first type of quantity corresponds to one unit of the second type of quantity. Some common unit rates are miles (or kilometers) per hour, cost per item, earnings per week, etc.
Ratio
comparison between two numbers. Separated by a colon (:), the word "to", or may be written in fraction form.
Proportion
an equation that shows that two ratios are equal. Numbers may change in value, but will keep the same proportional relationship to one another.
Cross Products
The product of the numbers which are diagonal from one another in a proportion equation. Should be equal on both sides.
Common denominator
for a set of fractions, a number into which each denominator can divide evenly
Denominator
the bottom number in a fraction
Difference
the answer to a subtraction problem
Digit
one of the ten number symbols. The digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Equation
a statement that two amounts are equal
Estimate
as a noun: an approximate value.
as a verb: to find an approximate value.
Fraction
a part of a whole
Greatest common factor
the greatest factor that divides two numbers
Improper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator
Least common multiple
the smallest positive number that is a multiple of two or more numbers.
Example: the Least Common Multiple of 3 and 5 is 15, because 15 is a multiple of 3 and also a multiple of 5. Other common multiples include 30 and 45, etc, but they are not the smallest (least).
Mixed number
a number with both a whole number and a fraction
Numerator
the top number in a fraction
Product
the answer to a multiplication problem
Probability
the chance of an event happening, usually expressed as the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes
Proper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is less than the denominator
Proportion
a statement that two ratios (or fractions) are equal
Rate of change
the change in the value of a quantity divided by the elapsed time
Ratio
a comparison for two numbers, may be written with a colon (:), as a fraction, or with the word "to"
Reducing
expressing a fraction in lowest terms
Sum
the answer to an addition problem
Unit rate
describes how many units of the first type of quantity corresponds to one unit of the second type of quantity. Some common unit rates are miles (or kilometers) per hour, cost per item, earnings per week, etc.
Binomial
a polynomial which is the sum of two terms (ex. 4x + x^3)
Commutative property
for addition and multiplication, numbers can be added or multiplied in any order. The sum or product will be the same. For any numbers a and b, a+b+=b+a and ab=ba
Coordinate plane
a flat surface divided by a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis
Coordinates
a pair of numbers in the form (x,y) that identify the distance of a point from the origin or center on the coordinate plane. The first number tells the distance to the left or right of the vertical axis, and the second number tells the distance above or below the horizontal axis
Cube
a number multiplied by itself three times (2^3, or 2 x 2 x 2 = 8)
Cube root
the opposite of the cube of a number; a square root, but to the 3rd power, rather than the 2nd. (the cube root of 8 is 2, because 2 x 2 x 2 = 8)
Distributive property
when multiplying a number by a sum or a difference, you may first multiply each number in the sum or difference, or you can find the sum or difference and then multiple.
For any numbers a, b, and c, a(b+c) = ab+bc and a(b-c) = ab-ac.
Equation
a statement that two amounts are equal
Evaluate
to find the value of a numerical or algebraic expression; to solve an equation
Exponent
a number that tells the power to which a base is raised. For example, in 3^2, the base is 3 and the exponent is 2.
Expression
numbers, symbols and operators (such as + and ×) grouped together that show the value of something.
Example: 2×3 is an expression
Factor
as a noun: a number that divides evenly into another number
as a verb: to write a number or an algebraic expression as a product of two or more terms
Formula
a mathematical rule that tells the relationship between quantities
Function
a special relationship where each input has a single output. It is often written as "f(x)" where x is the input value
Grouping symbols
symbols such as parentheses or the fraction bar that tell which operation to do first
Inequality
a statement that two amount are not equal. For example, < (less than) or > (greater than)
Intercept
the coordinates of the point where a line crosses the x- or y-axis of the coordinate plane
Linear equation
an equation whose graph is a straight line
Matrix
a rectangular array of numbers or other mathematical objects, for which operations such as addition and multiplication are defined.
Permutation
relates to the act of rearranging, or permuting, all the members of a set into some sequence or order (unlike combinations, which are selections of some members of the set where order is disregarded)
Power
a product of identical factors. For example, 3^2, or "3 to the second power" means 3x3. The base is 3 and the exponent is 2.
Quadratic equation
an equation in which at least one variable is raised to the second power
Scientific notation
a number written as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10
Square root
one of two equal factors of a number
Symmetry
when one shape becomes exactly like another if you flip, slide or turn it. The simplest type of Symmetry is "Reflection" (or "Mirror")
Translation
a transformation of the plane that slides every point of a figure the same distance in the same direction
Unknown OR Variable
a symbol, usually a letter, that represents a solution to an equation
Acute angle
an angle measuring less than 90 degrees
Adjacent angles
angles that share one side
Arc
a portion of the circumference of a circle
Area
a measure of the amount of surface on a closed plane figure
Circle
a plane figure, each point of which is the same distance from the center
Circumference
the distance around a circle
Complementary angles
angles whose sum is 90 degrees
Composite figure
a combination of other figures
Cone
a 3-dimensional figure whose base is a circle and whose height is the perpendicular distance from the base to the vertex
Congruent figures
geometric figures with exactly the same shape and same size
Cosine
for an acute angle in a right triangle, the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse; abbreviated as cos
Cube
a 3-dimensional figure that contains six square faces. At each vertex, all sides meet at right angles.
Cylinder
a 3-dimensional figure that has both a circular base and a circular top, and whose height is the perpendicular distance from the top to the bottom
Degree
the unit of measurement for angles. One degree is 1/360 of a circle
Diameter
the distance across and through the center of a circle
Dimension
a measurement of length in one direction. Examples: width, depth and height are dimensions. A line has one dimension, a square has two dimensions
Elevation
Angle of Elevation. The angle above horizontal that an observer must look to see an object that is higher than the observer.
Equilateral triangle
a triangle with three equal sides and three equal angles, each measuring 60 degrees
Gram
the standard unit of weight in the metric system
Hypotenuse
in a right triangle, the side opposite (across from) the right angle
Isosceles triangle
a triangle in which two sides have the same length. The two angles opposite the equal sides have the same measure
Legs
the two shorter sides in a right triangle
Line
a straight path of points that continues in two opposite directions
Line segment
a straight path of points with definite length, having two endpoints.
Linear equation
an equation whose graph is a straight line
Liter
the standard unit of liquid measure in the metric system
Meter
the standard unit of length in the metric system
Midpoint
The point halfway between the endpoints of a line segment that divides a line segment into two equal segments. By definition, a midpoint of a line segment is the point on that line segment that divides the segment two congruent segments.
Obtuse angle
an angle that measure more than 90 degree and less than 180 degrees
Parabola
the curve formed by the graph of a quadratic equation
Parallel lines
lines that run in the same direction and do not cross
Parallelogram
a four-sided figure with two pairs of parallel lines
Perimeter
the distance around a closed plane figure
Perpendicular lines
lines that intersect at a right angle
Pi
the Greek letter that represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. The approximate value of pi is 3.14 or 22/7
Plane
a flat surface
Polygon
a closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that meet only at their end points
Prism
a solid object with two identical ends and flat sides
Protractor
a tool for measuring and drawing the degrees in an angle
Pyramid
a solid figure with a polygon base and all other faces triangles that meet at a common vertex
Pythagorean relationship
for a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The formula is a^2 + b^2 = c^2, where a and b are the legs of a right triangle and c is the hypotenuse
Quadrilateral
a closed figure with four sides
Radius
the distance from the center of a circle to its circumference
Ray
a portion of a line which starts at a point and goes off in a particular direction to infinity
Rectangle
a four-sided figure with four right angles and with two pairs of parallel sides
Rectangular solid
a 3-dimensional figure in which each face is a rectangle
Reflex angle
an angle that measures more than 180 degrees and less than 360 degrees
Rhombus
a four-sided figure with four equal sides
Right angle
an angle that measures exactly 90 degrees
Right triangle
a triangle with one right angle
Scalene triangle
a triangle with no equal sides and no equal angles
Similar figures
geometric figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size
Sine
for an acute angle in a right triangle, the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse; abbreviated as sin
Slope
the measure of the "steepness" of a line on the coordinate plane. The slope is defined as the change in y values divided by the change in x values.
Solid
a 3-dimensional figure
Sphere
a 3-dimensional figure each point of which is an equal distance from the center
Square
a four-sided figure with four right angles, four equal sides, and two pairs of parallel sides
Square pyramid
a 3-dimensional figure whose base is a square and each of whose four triangular faces meet a a common point called the vertex
Straight angle
an angle that measures exactly 180 degrees
Supplementary angles
angles whose sum is 180 degrees
Surface area
the total area of the surface of a three-dimensional object
Tangent
for an acute angle in a right triangle, the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side; abbreviated as tan
Transversal
a line that cuts across parallel lines, intersecting each of them
Trapezoid
a four-sided figure with one pair of parallel sides
Triangle
a closed plane figure with three sides and three angles
Trigonometry
the study of the relationship between pairs of right sides in triangles
Vertex
the point where two sides of a closed figure or two sides of an angle meet
Vertical angles
angles formed when two lines intersect. Vertical angles lie across from each other and are equal
Volume
the amount of space inside a 3-dimensional figure, usually measured in cubic units
Absolute value
the distance from a number to zero on the number line
Associative property
for addition and multiplication, three numbers that can be grouped in any order. The sum or product will be the same. For any number a, b, and c, (a+b)+c = a+(b+c) and (ab)c = a(bc)
Average (mean)
the sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of numbers in a set
Coefficient
a number or symbol multiplied with a variable or an unknown quantity in an algebraic term
Commutative property
for addition and multiplication, numbers can be added or multiplied in any order. The sum or product will be the same. For any numbers a and b, a+b+=b+a and ab=ba
Consecutive
one following the other, for example, 19 and 20 are consecutive numbers
Cube root
the opposite of the cube of a number; a square root, but to the 3rd power, rather than the 2nd. (the cube root of 8 is 2, because 2 x 2 x 2 = 8)
Data
a collection of facts, such as numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things
Decimal
a fraction in which the whole is divided into tenths, hundredths, thousandths, ten-thousandths, and so on
Difference
the answer to a subtraction problem
Digit
one of the ten number symbols. The digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Distributive property
when multiplying a number by a sum or a difference, you may first multiply each number in the sum or difference, or you can find the sum or difference and then multiple.
For any numbers a, b, and c, a(b+c) = ab+bc and a(b-c) = ab-ac.
Equation
a statement that two amounts are equal
Estimate
as a noun: an approximate value.
as a verb: to find an approximate value.
Evaluate
to find the value of a numerical or algebraic expression; to solve an equation
Even number
a whole number that is evenly divisible by 2
Exponent
a number that tells the power to which a base is raised. For example, in 3^2, the base is 3 and the exponent is 2.
Expression
numbers, symbols and operators (such as + and ×) grouped together that show the value of something.
Example: 2×3 is an expression
Factor
as a noun: a number that divides evenly into another number
as a verb: to write a number or an algebraic expression as a product of two or more terms
Formula
a mathematical rule that tells the relationship between quantities
Frequency
how often something happens (usually during a period of time)
Grouping symbols
symbols such as parentheses or the fraction bar that tell which operation to do first
Inequality
a statement that two amount are not equal. For example, < (less than) or > (greater than)
Integer
positive and negative whole numbers and zero
Irrational number
any real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers. Irrational numbers cannot be represented as terminating or repeating decimals.
Matrix
a rectangular array of numbers or other mathematical objects, for which operations such as addition and multiplication are defined.
Mean
the sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of numbers in a set (AKA average)
Median
a number in the middle of a set of numbers, or the mean of the two middle numbers in a set
Mode
The mode of a set of numbers is the one that occurs most often. So, in the set {1,5,7,5,9}, the mode is 5 because there are 2 fives and only one of each of the others.
Negative number
a number less than zero
Number line
a line used to represent positive numbers, negative numbers, and zero
Odd number
a whole number that is not evenly divisible by 2
Place value
the number that a digit stands for. For example, in 35.6, the digit 3 stands for 30 because 3 is in the tens place. The digit 6 stands for 6/10 because 6 is in the tenths place.
Positive number
a number greater than zero
Power
a product of identical factors. For example, 3^2, or "3 to the second power" means 3x3. The base is 3 and the exponent is 2.
Prime number
a number that is evenly divisible only by itself and 1
Product
the answer to a multiplication problem
Quotient
the answer to a division problem
Rational number
a number that can be written as a ratio. That means it can be written as a fraction, in which both the numerator (the number on top) and the denominator (the number on the bottom) are whole numbers. The number 8 is a rational number because it can be written as the fraction 8/1
Rounding
making an estimate that is close to an original amount
Square root
one of two equal factors of a number
Sum
the answer to an addition problem
Unit rate
describes how many units of the first type of quantity corresponds to one unit of the second type of quantity. Some common unit rates are miles (or kilometers) per hour, cost per item, earnings per week, etc.
Whole number
a number that is evenly divisible by 1
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