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AP Biology Review - Ecology part 1

*****READ THIS***** ************************ This is a study guide under the subject of Ecology for the AP Biology Test. Good luck! Pt. 1 Pt. 2 is located here: http://quizlet.com/863193/ap-biology-review-ecology-part-2-flash-cards/ ----- PS More Biology Flash Cards I made for the midterm. Contains useful information http://quizlet.com/689375/biology-2-ap-midterm-review-part-1-flash-cards/
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Ecology
The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and their interactions with the world and others
Population
Group of individuals all of the same SPECIES LIVING in the SAME AREA.
Community
Group of populations living in the same area.
Ecosystem
This describes the interrelationships between the organisms in a community and the environment.
Biosphere
This is composed of all the regions on the earth that contains living things. IE soil, oceans, lower 10 km of the atmosphere.
Habitat
Place where organisms live. Can be described through temperature, soil quality, water salinity.
Niche
Describes all the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) resources in the environment used by an organism.
Population Ecology
Study of the growth, abundance, and distribution of populations.
Size (of a population)
Total number of individuals in the population (Represented by N)
Density (of a population)
The total number of individuals per area of volume occupied. (IE 100 mice/km^2)
Dispersion
Describes how individuals in a population are distributed. (IE clumped [people in cities], uniform [trees in orchards], or random [trees in forest])
Age Structure
Describes the abundance of individuals of each age; Often shown in age structure diagrams.
Survivorship Curves
Describes how mortality of individuals in a species varies during their lifetimes.
Type I Survivorship Curve
Curve that describes species where most individuals survive to middle age. After that, mortality is high. (humans)
Type II Survivorship Curve
Curve that describes organisms in which the length of survivorship is random, death likelihood is the same at any age. (rodents and hydras)
Type III Survivorship Curve
Curve that describes species in which most individuals die young, with only a few organisms surviving long enough to reproduce and beyond. (oysters, plankton)
Biotic Potential
Maximum growth rate of a population under ideal conditions, with unlimited resources and without growth restrictions
Factors that may affect biotic potential
Age to reproduce, Clutch size (# of offspring produced at reproduction), Frequency of reproduction, Reproductive lifetime, and Survivorship of offspring long enough to reproduce.
Carrying Capacity
Maximum number of individuals of a population that can be sustained by a particular habitat.
Limiting Factors
Elements that prevent a population from attaining its biotic potential.
Density-Dependent Factors
[a limiting factor] Agents whose limiting effect becomes more intense as the population density increases (IE parasites/disease, resources, toxic effect of waste products, and predation)
Density-Independent Factor
[a limiting factor] Occurs independently of the density of the population (IE natural disasters, climate change)
Equation for the growth of a population
r=(births - deaths)/N where r=reproductive/growth rate and N=initial population size
Exponential Growth
Pattern of population growth that occurs whenever the reproductive rate is greater than zero. (Forms a J-shaped curve when graphed)
Logistic Growth
Pattern of population growth that occurs when limiting factors restrict the size of the population to the carrying capacity of the habitat.(Forms an S-shaped curve [a sigmoid] when graphed.
Population Cycles
Fluctuations in population size in response to varying effects of limiting factors
r-selected species
Species that exhibit rapid growth (J-shaped curve), where opportunistic species (grass/insects) quickly invade habitats, reproduce, and die. Offspring are small, mature fast, and require little care
k-selected species
Species where population size remains constant (IE humans) and produce a small number of relatively large offspring that require much care until maturation.
Human Population Growth
Growth that began 1000 years ago, grew exponentially.
Exponential Growth Factors [of humans] include
Increase in food supply, reduction in disease, reduction in waste, expansion of habitat
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