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Speech final

STUDY
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T/F Aristotle was from Greece
true
T/F Cicero was from Rome
True
T/f Plato gave us the 5 canons of rhetoric
false
T/F Plato is regarded as scientific in his approach to rhetoric
false
T/F Cicero gave us the 5 canons of rhetoric
true
T/F Plato had a negative view of Sophists
True
T/F Aristotle is regarded as an idealist in his approach to rhetoric
false
The Orator is a classic written work in the study of rhetoric authored by
Cicero
The Rhetoric is a classic work in the study of rhetoric authored by
Aristotle
Who was famous for overcoming the challenges of a speech impediment and a sickly body in order to become a strong public speaker?
Demosthenes
When an audience member translates the speaker's verbal and nonverbal messages into thoughts, this process is known as
Decoding
T/F Although public speaking and conversation have similarities, public speaking is typically a bit less formal
false
When a speaker watches and listens for audience response and adapts the delivered message to that response, the speaker is reacting to audience
feedback
ways in which public speaking and conversation are similar would include
the need to focus and verbalize your thoughts;
the need to react to feedback
T/F in public speaking it is an audience member's responsibility to properly decode a speaker's remarks
true
T/F the introduction of the speech should be prepared before you worry too much about developing the body of the speech
false
T/F The central idea should indicate the topic, but the specific purpose statement should give a better indication of how the topic will be developed.
false
T/F it is best for the central idea to be worded in the form of a question
false
when you need to think of a speech topic and you write down as many ideas as come to mind without thinking categorically, you are using a process known as
Invention
T/F In the process of invention, or creating and developing a speech, the first order of business is to create the introduction as the foundation on which to build the body of the message
false
a properly worded central idea includes:
a single sentence summarizing the speech;
gives an indication of purpose;
gives an indication of topic;
gives an indication of how the topic will be developed
T/F in general, any of the methods or rhetorical devices that are useful in the introduction of a speech may also be useful in the conclusion of a speech
true
in an introduction, you may ask a question that doesn't require a response because the answer is somewhat obvious and it is intended to prompt the audience to think about your topic. This type of question is called:
A rhetorical question
In an introduction, an effective way to give your audience a reason to listen is
to establish your personal credibility in relation to the topic;
to relate the topic to their own personal experience
terms like "finally," "in conclusion" and "in closing" are examples of
devices for closure, signaling the move to the conclusion of the speech.
Public Speaking process: Source
primary source and sender of information;
encodes ideas
Public Speaking process: Message
The speech itself;
verbal and non-verbal symbols conveying content
Public Speaking process: Receivers
the listeners; audience; decode ideas
Public Speaking process: Channels of Communication
Visual and Auditory; appealing to the five senses;
measure of time and thought
Public Speaking process: Feedback
Audience response;
verbal and non-verbal;
the wise and skilled speaker reads it and adapts to their feedback
Public Speaking process: Noise
Anything and everything that interferes with the goal of arriving at shared understanding;
there is wide variety, both external and internal
Public Speaking process: the Context
Occasion;
environment;
time, location, conditions
6 ways of dealing with nervousness
it is common; realize it's not as noticeable as you think; accept it; realize it will be reduced with time and experience; recover from fumbles; PREPARE!
Invention
creating ideas for a topic
Disposition
Narrowing down ideas, arranging/organizing
Elocution
the style of language;
Memory
command of the material
Pronunciation
delivery
3 general purposes for giving speeches
to: inform; persuade; entertain
our beliefs, values and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong are our personal
ethics
T/F If something is within the restraints of what is considered to be lawful, it is not necessarily ethically sound behavior
true
T/F the first Amendment of the US Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, an absolute right of American citizens, with no restrictions
false
the willingness to listen to different viewpoints and understand beliefs and values other than your own is known as
accommodation
lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is an unethical practice known as
Plagiarism
Lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is a serious offense, whether intentional or out of carelessness
true
proper documentation of sources in manuscript speeches will involve
written citation; oral citation
T/F it is required to give proper credit to sources that are quoted directly, but not if you paraphrase a statement or an idea from another source
false
T/F in the public speaking event both speakers and listeners have ethical responsibilities
true
Em Griffin's "Christian ethic for persuasion," as given in class, includes the following concerns
carefully considering the issues of truth, love and respect of freewill
T/F Adapting the message to the audience means that a speaker changes the method or way of presenting the information to a particular audience, but the basic content of the message remains the same from one group to another
true
T/F A listener-based message will consider cultural issues, but the economic level of the audience would not be a relevant matter
false
age, gender and nationality are
demographic concerns
T/F Views on feminism, gun control and religious issues are psychographic concerns, but demographic realities may well give hints to the psychographic realities
true
size of the room, size of the crowd relative to the size of the room, temperature in the room and time of day are what type of concerns?
rhetorographic concerns
Which is more easily determined? Demographic or Psychographic concerns?
Demographic concerns
T/F The 3 analysis and adaptation issues that Hafe gave in class are prior analysis and adaptation, process analysis and adaptation, and post-presentation analysis and adaptation
true
T/F a question and answer session after the speech would be an important means of prior analysis
false
T/F reacting to and adjusting to feedback during the speech would be part of process analysis
true
determining group affiliations would be part of the demographic analysis of an audience
true
being alert about clues as to an audience's pre-disposition toward a topic would most likely involve what type(s) of analysis?
both demographic and psychographic analysis
T/F a speaker should guard against ethnocentric driven comments that might lack appropriate sensitivity to other cultural backgrounds represented in one's audience, resulting in unnecessary barriers.
true
ethnocentrism is
the attitude that one's own cultural approach is superior to those from other cultures
the specific group of audience members that you, as a speaker, most wish to address or influence is your
target audience
T/F if your audience seems confused or doesn't understand what you are saying, adaptation might include using more repetition or stating your ideas "in other words"
true
T/F if you want to discover the meaning of a word, the best place to look is a lexicon
false
T/F if you want to find alternative words that may be more concrete for expressing a particular idea, the best place to look is the thesaurus
true
in order to ensure using a word accurately a speaker needs
to know the meaning of the word; know the pronunciation of the word
T/F oral language style is typically more repetitious than written language style
true
T/F oral language style is usually more formal than written language style
false
T/F written language style is typically more formal and less personal than oral language style
true
T/F the objective, dictionary meaning of a word is the denotative meaning
true
T/F the subjective, personal response or reaction to a word is the connotative meaning
true
T/F there may be different denotative meaning for the same word
true
T/F there may be different connotative meanings for the same word
true
in the Triangle of Meaning, the relationship between THOUGHT and the SYMBOL is
direct
in the Triangle of Meaning, the relationship between the REFERENT and the THOUGHT is
direct
in the Triangle of meaning, the relationship between the SYMBOL and the REFERENT is
indirect
in the Triangle of meaning, the symbol is
the collection of letters arranged in a certain way in a particular language used to represent an object or concept
in the Triangle of meaning, the referent is
the actual object or concept
effective strategies for using words well would include
specific words; concrete words
the term used to describe language that is unique to a speaker's particular hobby or profession is
jargon
T/F as a stylistic device, alliteration is the repetition of a consonant sound in a clause, phrase or outline
true
T/F as a stylistic device, parallelism has two or more clauses or phrases with the same grammatical pattern
true
which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? we should not demean our democracy with the politics of distraction, denial and despair
Alliteration
which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? walking into my grandparent's home when I was a child was like being wrapped in a giant security blanket
simile
which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country
Antithesis
Which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? the vice presidency is the sand trap of American politics. it's near the prize, and designed to be limiting
Metaphor
Which stylistic device is a comparison that uses the words "like" or "as"
simile
T/F when selecting a source as support material, it's important to remember that the credibility of a source will often be directly connected to the source's objectivity concerning a topic.
true
T/F a skilled public speaker will choose and use a variety of types of supporting material
true
T/F some of the strongest illustrations are those that are personal to the speaker
true
a figurative analogy is
in the form of a metaphor or simile
when someone, who is a recognized authority in a specialized area, is cited as a source, this is considered
expert testimony
T/F the weakness of an analogy is primarily connected to how dissimilar the two things being compared are in all key aspects
true
T/F unbiased, reputable and authoritative sources help to build credibility
true
examples are beneficial in the following ways
they clarify ideas; they reinforce ideas; they personalize ideas
when using brief illustrations, it is often best to use
a string of brief illustrations as opposed to just one
producing word pictures that allow your audience to mentally see, hear, smell, touch, or taste something is a process known as
description
it would be most useful to use expert testimony in a speech
when your topic is controversial
T/F when using statistics as support material, it is important to sue as many as you can find because it adds greater credibility to the point you are making
false
T/F when using statistics, accuracy is always of utmost importance, but it's okay (and maybe even helpful) to round off figures
true
the statement, "years ago when we were kids, my friends and i never thought twice about tossing trash out into the street from our car windows. now most of us wouldn't even think about littering like this," is a form of supporting material called
a brief example
when you use opinions that are provided to a reporter who is speaking with a person on the street about a local political issue, this would most likely be what type of testimony?
testimony of casual observers
T/F an illustration that is quite a bit longer than a sentence or 2 would be called an extended illustration or an extended example
true
what form of supporting material is being used in the following question: "if many states profit from the institution of a lottery, why can't our home state do the same?"
direct analogy
comparing the dynamics of imports and exports in the economic world with the idea of stepping on the brake and the gas pedal of a car at the same time would be an example of
indirect analogy
T/F in statistical studies, a focus group of people that is representative of a larger group of people is called the SAMPLE of the POPULATION
true
T/F in statistical studies, the larger group that a focus group represents is called the sample
false
T/F when using statistics it is important to avoid overloading your audience
true
presenting a speech word-for-word from material written out on a page is termed
manuscript delivery
delivering a speech in a conversational form from a well-developed outline is termed
extemporaneous delivery
when asked to deliver a speech on the spur of the moment with little or no formal preparation, the speaker will implement
impromptu delivery
when someone writes out a speech word-for-word and delivers it precisely as prepared, but without the benefit of any speech notes, they are implementing
memorized delivery
the 2 methods of delivery that make it difficult to respond to audience feedback during the presentation would include
memorized and manuscript
when speaking on a very complex topic and when precision is extremely important, a speaker may find it advantageous to use what kind of delivery?
manuscript delivery
3 basic contributors to your own "speaking style" would include
the sound of your voice, your choice of words and non-verbal elements (gestures)
concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the resonator is comprised of the
throat, nose and mouth
T/F the variation between levels of highness and lowness in your voice is called the rate of delivery
false
T/F concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the evaluator is comprised of the ears and brain
true
concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the generator is comprised of
the diaphragm and the muscles in the rib cage
concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the vibrator is comprised of
the vocal cords housed in the larynx
concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the articulator is comprised of
the tongue, teeth and lips; the lower jaw and soft palate
T/F it is not possible to implement excellent articulation yet poor pronunciation at the same time
false
the effective public speaker will make sure that the verbal and non-verbal aspects of the presentation are
complementary; consistent with one another
a smaller version of a large object or a larger version of a smaller object that is used as a presentation aid is termed
model
the type of speech that will benefit from the use of visual aids is
any type of speech
T/F it's always a good idea to have some sort of visual aid for the audience to pass around while you are speaking
false
T/F according to your instructor, it's never a good idea to have some sort of visual aid for the audience to pass around while you are speaking
false
to get the most out of them, you should keep all your visual aids on display throughout your entire presentation
false
looking at the visual aid as you speak helps draw attention to the audience to the aid too
false
the best advice for timing the use of presentation aids in a speech is to
display them as they correspond to the content of your message
when using technology, particularly projecting images on a screen, it is helpful to remember
you may have to dim the lights or turn overhead lights completely off; if you have to turn the lights down or off, you lose vital visual contact with your listeners
T/F when using handouts, you should not give directions to the listeners as to how to use them because this will result in distracting their attention form the message
false
T/F if you have multiple pages of handouts, be sure to number them or label them in such a way that you can easily direct the listeners attention to specific pages
true
T/F if you use someone to hold or display your visual aids, you should be sure to rehearse with your assistant so everything will go smoothly during your presentation
true
T/F remembering Murphy's Law when it comes to visual aids has to do with being ready to deal with potential problems or snags
true
T/F when using electronic visual aids, double checking equipment and thinking in advance about a back-up plan in the event of equipment failure is a good idea
true
This act involves taking passages or ideas from another source and using them as one's own
plagiarism
Why is proper documentation important?
As a matter of integrity; to protect our Christian witness; due to impact on our credibility
T/F documentation of sources is an absolute necessity only when directly quoting a source
false
T/F when paraphrasing ideas from another source, the material must be documented only if it has been published and/or copyrighted
false
T/F one exception where documentation of a source would not be required is when the information used is condsiered "common knowledge" and is available in a variety of standard sources
true
T/F verbal documentation typically requires more detail than written documentation
false
T/F written documentation typically requires more detail than verbal documentation
true
the 2 types of propositions that have the same 2 stock issue questions are
NOT policy and fact; value and policy
the question "is there a problem?" relates to which label in connection with a proposition of policy?
ILL
the question IS there a plan? relates to which label in connection with a proposition of policy?
CURE
the question of inherency related to a proposition of policy has to do with
BLAME
concerning the stock issues for a proposition of policy, advantages and disadvantages or pros and cons have to do with
COST
the proposition that asks the audience to affirm or deny an alleged state of affairs is a proposition of
FACT
the proposition that asks the audience to make a judgement of worth is a proposition of
value
the proposition that asks the audience to adopt a future course of action is the proposition of
policy
T/F inductive reasoning deals in absolutes and logical necessity
false
T/F deductive reasoning deals in probability
false
T/F In Toulmin's Model of Reasoning, the data answers the question, What do you have to go on?
true
T/F In Toulmin's Model of Reasoning, the warrant answers the question, what do you have to go on?
false
T/F examples serve as strong evidence if they are representative instead of anomalies
true
in Toulmins Model of reasoning, proof consists of
the data and the warrant; the evidence and the reasoning
in Toulmin's model of reasoning the claim is the same as the
conclusion or proposition
A accounts for B is a description of
argument of causation
A indicates B is a description of
argument from sign
believing that what is true for a representative group will be true for a larger group is the basis for
reasoning by generalization
comparing two things that are alike in relevant and essential characteristics is part of
analogical reasoning
T/F examples are always very strong evidences and are almost impossible to deny or refute
false
T/F in reality, testimony is only as valuable as the credibility of the source
true
T/F examples are very strong evidence, but since they are easily countered, it is important to cite numerous examples and/or typical examples in support of arguments
true
T/F statistics are numerical facts and therefore can always be trusted
false
wait a minute...you're comparing apples with oranges! you need to compare apples with apples! the preceding statement would be an accusation leveled toward someone being guilty of fallacy of reasoning related to
analogical reasoning
identify the type of proposition: Most Americans want the legislation legalizing abortion to be overturned
fact
identify the type of proposition: capital punishment is immoral
value
identify the the type of proposition: attending R rated movies is not healthy or good
value
identify the type of proposition: repent and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven
policy
identify the type of proposition: what is highly valued among men is detestable in God's sight
fact
identify the type of proposition: devote yourselves to prayer, being watchful and thankful
policy
identify the type of proposition: marry me
policy
an informative speech that discusses principles, concepts and theories is classified as a speech about
ideas
a speech about a procedure will usually be arranged
chronologically
T/F the primary goals of the informative speech would include presenting information in a way that the audience can understand and remember, while maintaining their interest throughout
true
T/F speeches about objects are usually more abstract than speeches about concepts
false
one of the best ways to maintain the interest of the audience is through
Creating suspense through story-telling; sharing a story that is action packed; telling a story that is humorous.
T/F Gabe will fall asleep during our test tomorrow
probably true