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T/F Aristotle was from Greece


T/F Cicero was from Rome


T/f Plato gave us the 5 canons of rhetoric


T/F Plato is regarded as scientific in his approach to rhetoric


T/F Cicero gave us the 5 canons of rhetoric


T/F Plato had a negative view of Sophists


T/F Aristotle is regarded as an idealist in his approach to rhetoric


The Orator is a classic written work in the study of rhetoric authored by


The Rhetoric is a classic work in the study of rhetoric authored by


Who was famous for overcoming the challenges of a speech impediment and a sickly body in order to become a strong public speaker?


When an audience member translates the speaker's verbal and nonverbal messages into thoughts, this process is known as


T/F Although public speaking and conversation have similarities, public speaking is typically a bit less formal


When a speaker watches and listens for audience response and adapts the delivered message to that response, the speaker is reacting to audience


ways in which public speaking and conversation are similar would include

the need to focus and verbalize your thoughts;
the need to react to feedback

T/F in public speaking it is an audience member's responsibility to properly decode a speaker's remarks


T/F the introduction of the speech should be prepared before you worry too much about developing the body of the speech


T/F The central idea should indicate the topic, but the specific purpose statement should give a better indication of how the topic will be developed.


T/F it is best for the central idea to be worded in the form of a question


when you need to think of a speech topic and you write down as many ideas as come to mind without thinking categorically, you are using a process known as


T/F In the process of invention, or creating and developing a speech, the first order of business is to create the introduction as the foundation on which to build the body of the message


a properly worded central idea includes:

a single sentence summarizing the speech;
gives an indication of purpose;
gives an indication of topic;
gives an indication of how the topic will be developed

T/F in general, any of the methods or rhetorical devices that are useful in the introduction of a speech may also be useful in the conclusion of a speech


in an introduction, you may ask a question that doesn't require a response because the answer is somewhat obvious and it is intended to prompt the audience to think about your topic. This type of question is called:

A rhetorical question

In an introduction, an effective way to give your audience a reason to listen is

to establish your personal credibility in relation to the topic;
to relate the topic to their own personal experience

terms like "finally," "in conclusion" and "in closing" are examples of

devices for closure, signaling the move to the conclusion of the speech.

Public Speaking process: Source

primary source and sender of information;
encodes ideas

Public Speaking process: Message

The speech itself;
verbal and non-verbal symbols conveying content

Public Speaking process: Receivers

the listeners; audience; decode ideas

Public Speaking process: Channels of Communication

Visual and Auditory; appealing to the five senses;
measure of time and thought

Public Speaking process: Feedback

Audience response;
verbal and non-verbal;
the wise and skilled speaker reads it and adapts to their feedback

Public Speaking process: Noise

Anything and everything that interferes with the goal of arriving at shared understanding;
there is wide variety, both external and internal

Public Speaking process: the Context

time, location, conditions

6 ways of dealing with nervousness

it is common; realize it's not as noticeable as you think; accept it; realize it will be reduced with time and experience; recover from fumbles; PREPARE!


creating ideas for a topic


Narrowing down ideas, arranging/organizing


the style of language;


command of the material



3 general purposes for giving speeches

to: inform; persuade; entertain

our beliefs, values and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong are our personal


T/F If something is within the restraints of what is considered to be lawful, it is not necessarily ethically sound behavior


T/F the first Amendment of the US Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, an absolute right of American citizens, with no restrictions


the willingness to listen to different viewpoints and understand beliefs and values other than your own is known as


lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is an unethical practice known as


Lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is a serious offense, whether intentional or out of carelessness


proper documentation of sources in manuscript speeches will involve

written citation; oral citation

T/F it is required to give proper credit to sources that are quoted directly, but not if you paraphrase a statement or an idea from another source


T/F in the public speaking event both speakers and listeners have ethical responsibilities


Em Griffin's "Christian ethic for persuasion," as given in class, includes the following concerns

carefully considering the issues of truth, love and respect of freewill

T/F Adapting the message to the audience means that a speaker changes the method or way of presenting the information to a particular audience, but the basic content of the message remains the same from one group to another


T/F A listener-based message will consider cultural issues, but the economic level of the audience would not be a relevant matter


age, gender and nationality are

demographic concerns

T/F Views on feminism, gun control and religious issues are psychographic concerns, but demographic realities may well give hints to the psychographic realities


size of the room, size of the crowd relative to the size of the room, temperature in the room and time of day are what type of concerns?

rhetorographic concerns

Which is more easily determined? Demographic or Psychographic concerns?

Demographic concerns

T/F The 3 analysis and adaptation issues that Hafe gave in class are prior analysis and adaptation, process analysis and adaptation, and post-presentation analysis and adaptation


T/F a question and answer session after the speech would be an important means of prior analysis


T/F reacting to and adjusting to feedback during the speech would be part of process analysis


determining group affiliations would be part of the demographic analysis of an audience


being alert about clues as to an audience's pre-disposition toward a topic would most likely involve what type(s) of analysis?

both demographic and psychographic analysis

T/F a speaker should guard against ethnocentric driven comments that might lack appropriate sensitivity to other cultural backgrounds represented in one's audience, resulting in unnecessary barriers.


ethnocentrism is

the attitude that one's own cultural approach is superior to those from other cultures

the specific group of audience members that you, as a speaker, most wish to address or influence is your

target audience

T/F if your audience seems confused or doesn't understand what you are saying, adaptation might include using more repetition or stating your ideas "in other words"


T/F if you want to discover the meaning of a word, the best place to look is a lexicon


T/F if you want to find alternative words that may be more concrete for expressing a particular idea, the best place to look is the thesaurus


in order to ensure using a word accurately a speaker needs

to know the meaning of the word; know the pronunciation of the word

T/F oral language style is typically more repetitious than written language style


T/F oral language style is usually more formal than written language style


T/F written language style is typically more formal and less personal than oral language style


T/F the objective, dictionary meaning of a word is the denotative meaning


T/F the subjective, personal response or reaction to a word is the connotative meaning


T/F there may be different denotative meaning for the same word


T/F there may be different connotative meanings for the same word


in the Triangle of Meaning, the relationship between THOUGHT and the SYMBOL is


in the Triangle of Meaning, the relationship between the REFERENT and the THOUGHT is


in the Triangle of meaning, the relationship between the SYMBOL and the REFERENT is


in the Triangle of meaning, the symbol is

the collection of letters arranged in a certain way in a particular language used to represent an object or concept

in the Triangle of meaning, the referent is

the actual object or concept

effective strategies for using words well would include

specific words; concrete words

the term used to describe language that is unique to a speaker's particular hobby or profession is


T/F as a stylistic device, alliteration is the repetition of a consonant sound in a clause, phrase or outline


T/F as a stylistic device, parallelism has two or more clauses or phrases with the same grammatical pattern


which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? we should not demean our democracy with the politics of distraction, denial and despair


which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? walking into my grandparent's home when I was a child was like being wrapped in a giant security blanket


which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country


Which stylistic device is used in the following quotation? the vice presidency is the sand trap of American politics. it's near the prize, and designed to be limiting


Which stylistic device is a comparison that uses the words "like" or "as"


T/F when selecting a source as support material, it's important to remember that the credibility of a source will often be directly connected to the source's objectivity concerning a topic.


T/F a skilled public speaker will choose and use a variety of types of supporting material


T/F some of the strongest illustrations are those that are personal to the speaker


a figurative analogy is

in the form of a metaphor or simile

when someone, who is a recognized authority in a specialized area, is cited as a source, this is considered

expert testimony

T/F the weakness of an analogy is primarily connected to how dissimilar the two things being compared are in all key aspects


T/F unbiased, reputable and authoritative sources help to build credibility


examples are beneficial in the following ways

they clarify ideas; they reinforce ideas; they personalize ideas

when using brief illustrations, it is often best to use

a string of brief illustrations as opposed to just one

producing word pictures that allow your audience to mentally see, hear, smell, touch, or taste something is a process known as


it would be most useful to use expert testimony in a speech

when your topic is controversial

T/F when using statistics as support material, it is important to sue as many as you can find because it adds greater credibility to the point you are making


T/F when using statistics, accuracy is always of utmost importance, but it's okay (and maybe even helpful) to round off figures


the statement, "years ago when we were kids, my friends and i never thought twice about tossing trash out into the street from our car windows. now most of us wouldn't even think about littering like this," is a form of supporting material called

a brief example

when you use opinions that are provided to a reporter who is speaking with a person on the street about a local political issue, this would most likely be what type of testimony?

testimony of casual observers

T/F an illustration that is quite a bit longer than a sentence or 2 would be called an extended illustration or an extended example


what form of supporting material is being used in the following question: "if many states profit from the institution of a lottery, why can't our home state do the same?"

direct analogy

comparing the dynamics of imports and exports in the economic world with the idea of stepping on the brake and the gas pedal of a car at the same time would be an example of

indirect analogy

T/F in statistical studies, a focus group of people that is representative of a larger group of people is called the SAMPLE of the POPULATION


T/F in statistical studies, the larger group that a focus group represents is called the sample


T/F when using statistics it is important to avoid overloading your audience


presenting a speech word-for-word from material written out on a page is termed

manuscript delivery

delivering a speech in a conversational form from a well-developed outline is termed

extemporaneous delivery

when asked to deliver a speech on the spur of the moment with little or no formal preparation, the speaker will implement

impromptu delivery

when someone writes out a speech word-for-word and delivers it precisely as prepared, but without the benefit of any speech notes, they are implementing

memorized delivery

the 2 methods of delivery that make it difficult to respond to audience feedback during the presentation would include

memorized and manuscript

when speaking on a very complex topic and when precision is extremely important, a speaker may find it advantageous to use what kind of delivery?

manuscript delivery

3 basic contributors to your own "speaking style" would include

the sound of your voice, your choice of words and non-verbal elements (gestures)

concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the resonator is comprised of the

throat, nose and mouth

T/F the variation between levels of highness and lowness in your voice is called the rate of delivery


T/F concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the evaluator is comprised of the ears and brain


concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the generator is comprised of

the diaphragm and the muscles in the rib cage

concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the vibrator is comprised of

the vocal cords housed in the larynx

concerning the anatomy of the voice as given in class, the articulator is comprised of

the tongue, teeth and lips; the lower jaw and soft palate

T/F it is not possible to implement excellent articulation yet poor pronunciation at the same time


the effective public speaker will make sure that the verbal and non-verbal aspects of the presentation are

complementary; consistent with one another

a smaller version of a large object or a larger version of a smaller object that is used as a presentation aid is termed


the type of speech that will benefit from the use of visual aids is

any type of speech

T/F it's always a good idea to have some sort of visual aid for the audience to pass around while you are speaking


T/F according to your instructor, it's never a good idea to have some sort of visual aid for the audience to pass around while you are speaking


to get the most out of them, you should keep all your visual aids on display throughout your entire presentation


looking at the visual aid as you speak helps draw attention to the audience to the aid too


the best advice for timing the use of presentation aids in a speech is to

display them as they correspond to the content of your message

when using technology, particularly projecting images on a screen, it is helpful to remember

you may have to dim the lights or turn overhead lights completely off; if you have to turn the lights down or off, you lose vital visual contact with your listeners

T/F when using handouts, you should not give directions to the listeners as to how to use them because this will result in distracting their attention form the message


T/F if you have multiple pages of handouts, be sure to number them or label them in such a way that you can easily direct the listeners attention to specific pages


T/F if you use someone to hold or display your visual aids, you should be sure to rehearse with your assistant so everything will go smoothly during your presentation


T/F remembering Murphy's Law when it comes to visual aids has to do with being ready to deal with potential problems or snags


T/F when using electronic visual aids, double checking equipment and thinking in advance about a back-up plan in the event of equipment failure is a good idea


This act involves taking passages or ideas from another source and using them as one's own


Why is proper documentation important?

As a matter of integrity; to protect our Christian witness; due to impact on our credibility

T/F documentation of sources is an absolute necessity only when directly quoting a source


T/F when paraphrasing ideas from another source, the material must be documented only if it has been published and/or copyrighted


T/F one exception where documentation of a source would not be required is when the information used is condsiered "common knowledge" and is available in a variety of standard sources


T/F verbal documentation typically requires more detail than written documentation


T/F written documentation typically requires more detail than verbal documentation


the 2 types of propositions that have the same 2 stock issue questions are

NOT policy and fact; value and policy

the question "is there a problem?" relates to which label in connection with a proposition of policy?


the question IS there a plan? relates to which label in connection with a proposition of policy?


the question of inherency related to a proposition of policy has to do with


concerning the stock issues for a proposition of policy, advantages and disadvantages or pros and cons have to do with


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