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21 terms

chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Narcissism
a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement, and a tendency to exploit others.
Psychology
the science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
Behavior
any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
Clinical Psychology
the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Adjustment
refers to the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life.
Empiricism
the premise that knowledge should be acquire through observation.
Experiment
is a research method in which the investigator manipulates one (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result.
Independent Variable
a condition or event that an experimenter varies in orders to see its impact on another variable.
Dependent Variable
the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable.
Experimental Group
consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
Correlation
exists when two variables are related to each other.
Correlation Coefficient
a numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables.
Naturalistic Observation
A researcher engages in careful observation of behavior or without intervening directly with the subjects.
Case-Study
Is a in-depth investigation of an individual subject.
Subjective well-being
individuals' personal assessments of their overall happiness or life satisfaction.
Affective Forecasting
efforts to predict one's emotional reactions to future events.
Hedonic Adaption
occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness- unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline for comparison, is changed.
Overlearning
continued rehearsal of material after you have first appeared to master it.
Mnemonic Devices
strategies for enhancing memory.
Control group
consist of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group.
Surveys
structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of participants' behavior.