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A system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, esp. one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection.

Industrial Revolution

The rapid development of industry in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery.


1. Patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
2. An extreme form of this, esp. marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.

Gold Rush

A rapid movement of people to a newly discovered goldfield. The first major gold rush, to California in 1848-49, was followed by others in the US, Australia (1851-53), South Africa (1884), and Canada (Klondike, 1897-98)


Restriction of interest to a narrow sphere; undue concern with local interests or petty distinctions at the expense of general well-being

manifest destiny

the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable

domestic policy

Domestic policy, also known as public policy, presents decisions, laws, and programs made by the government which are directly related to issues in the country.

foreign policy

a policy governing international relations


1. A person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so
2. A promoter in the entertainment industry

annex (annexation)

the action of annexing something, esp. territory

cede (cession)

Give up (power or territory)

mission system

The mission system was a chain of missions estalbished by Franciscan monks in the Spanish Southwest and California that forced Indians to convert to Catholicism and work as agricultural laborers.

sod house

a house built of sod or adobe laid in horizontal courses

dugout house

A dugout or dug-out, also known as a pithouse, pit-house, earth lodge, mud hut, is a shelter for humans or domesticated animals and livestock based on a hole or depression dug into the ground

bonanza farm

Bonanza farms were very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat.


Move from one area or country to settle in another, esp. in search of work


Leave one's own country in order to settle permanently in another


assimilation into American culture


areas of federal land set aside for American Indians


Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880. After the end of Reconstruction, racial oppression and rumors of the reinstitution of slavery led many freedmen to seek a new place to live.

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