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22 terms

Bio 20- 8.1

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carbohydrates
a molecule composed of sugar subunits that contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
polymers
a molecule composed of three or more subunits
monosaccharides
a single sugar unit
disaccharide
a sugar formed by the joining of two monosaccharide subunits
dehydration synthesis
the process which larger molecules are formed by the removal of water from two smaller molecules
hydrolosis
the process by which larger molecules are split into smaller molecules by the addition of water
polysaccharide
a carbohydrate composed of many single sugar subunits
starch
a plant carbohydrate used to store energy
glycogen
the form of carbohydrate storage in animals
cellulose
a plant polysaccharide that makes up plant cell walls
triglyceride
a lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
oil
a lipid composed of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids liquid at room temperature
fat
lipid composed of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids solid at room temperature
phospholipid
a lipid with a phosphate molecule attached to the glycerol back bone making the molecule polar the major components of cell membranes
wax
a long chain lipid that is insoluble in water
proteins
a chain of amino acids that form the structural parts of cells or aact as antibodies or enzymes
amino acids
a chemical that contains nitrogen and they link together to form protein
peptide bond
the bond that joins to amino acids
polypeptide
a chain of three or more amino acids
essential amino acid
an amino acid that must be obtained from the diet
denaturation
the process that ocurrs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted causing the temporary change in shape
coagulation
the process that occurs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted causing a permanent change in shape