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45 terms

Food Resources: A Challenge for Agriculture

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Organic Food Production Act
1990 - food that is grown without commercial inorganic fetilizers and pesticides.
Carbohydrates
sugars and starches found in food
Cell Respiration
the process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules
Proteins
large, complex molecules composed of repeating subunits called amino acids.
Amino Acids
Small molecules that are the components of proteins
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food. Eight of these are essential in the human adult.
Lipids
a group of biological molecules that includes fats and oils
Minerals
inorganic elements such as iron, iodine, and calcium. These are essential for the normal functioning human body
Vitamins
compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients. Required in small amounts.
Undernourished
Consuming fewer calories than needed.
Malnourished
Consuming enough calories, but still do not receiving the essential nutrients.
Marasmus
Progressive emaciation caused by a diet low in calories and protein. Typically happens in the first year of life.
Kwashiorkor
severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
Overnourished
A diet high in saturated fats and sugar. Can cause obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.
Famine
severe food shortage
World Grain Carryover Stocks
amounts of rice, wheat, corn, and other grains, remaining from previous harvests, as estimated at the start of a new harvest.
Food Security
A goal in which all people have access at all times to adequate amounts and kinds of food needed for healthy and active lives.
High-input agriculture/industrialized agriculture
agriculture that relies on high use of energy (fossil fuels) to run machinery, irrigate crops, and produce chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides.
Yields
the amount of a food crop produced per unit of land
Subsistence Agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
Shifting Agriculture
clearing of patches of tropical forest to plant crops
Nomadic Herding
is a way of life where families move along with their herds according to the seasons and rely on their animals for food, shelter and clothing. They can tend to cattle, camels, goats, horses, reindeer, or sheep.
Polyculture
Complex form of intercropping in which a large number of different plants maturing at different times are planted together.
Domesticated
tamed for human purposes
Germplasm
Any plant or animal material that may be used in breeding.
Green Revolution
The production of more food per acre of cropland by using modern cultivation methods and the new, high-yielding varieties of certain staple crops.
Food Additives
chemicals added to enhance the taste, color, or texture of the food.
Coloring Agents
chemicals to make the food look more appealing.
Preservatives
chemicals added to retard the growth of bacteria and fungi to cause the food spoilage
Antioxidants
food additives to prevent oxidation.
Nitrates
types of componds called salts that contain the NO3 group, made up of three oxygen atoms bonded to one nitrogen atom.
Nitrites
types of compounds called salts that contain the NO2 group, made up of two oxygen artoms bonded to one nitrogen atom.
N-nitroso compounds
related nitrogen-containing compounds.
Degradation
process that decreases the future ability to support crops or livestock animals
Sustainable/alternative/low-input agriculture
agriculture that relies on beneficial biological processes and environmentally friendly chemicals.
Organic Agriculture
agriculture that uses no pesticide chemicals
Integrated Pest Management
agriculture that limits the use of pesticides and incorporates practices such as crop rotation, continual monitoring for potential pests, etc.
Genetic Engineering
the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits
Bycatch
unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species
Ocean enclosure
puts organisms within 200miles of land under the jurisdiction of the country bordering the ocean.
Magnuson Fishery Conservation Act
1977 - established eight regional fishery management councils, each of which developed a management plan for its region
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
an act that required the National Marine Fisheries Service to protect "essential fish habitat" for more than 600 fish species.
Aquaculture
rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food
Mariculture
cultivation of marine organisms
Open Management
all fishing boats of that country are given unrestricted access to fishes in national waters