59 terms

Human Reproductive System

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Ovary
The female gonad, the ovary is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) and female hormones.
Penis
The external male sex organ used to copulate and ejaculate semen and to convey urine outside the body
Fertilization
Fertilization is the process of combining the male gamete, or "sperm," with the female gamete, or "ovum." The product of this combination is a cell called a zygote.
Gastrulation
development of embryo- the process of cell movements by which a developing embryo forms distinct layers that later grow into different organs
Follicle
the sac in the ovary in which the egg develops
Ovulation
the expulsion of an ovum (egg) from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
Zygote
fertilized egg
Placenta
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
Oviduct
either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
Cleavage
the state of being split or cleft
Ovum
the female reproductive cell (egg)
Fetus
an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
Uterus
a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females
Ovarian cycle
the cycle in which ovaries produce eggs, estrogen, and progesterone
Blastocyst
a hollow ball of cells from the fertilized egg that implants itself into the uterus lining
Labor
undergo the efforts of childbirth
Cervix
necklike opening to the uterus
Menstrual cycle
the female reproductive cycle, characterized by a monthly change of the lining of the uterus and the discharge of blood
Trophoblast
The outer ring of cells of a blastocyst. The trophoblast takes part in the formation of the placenta.
Oxytocin
induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing
Vagina
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body
Endometrium
(pregnancy) the mucous membrane that lines the uterus
Embryo
An organism in the earliest stage of development
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Testes
produce testosterone and sperm
Menstruation
the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
Implantation
(embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals
DNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Scrotum
the external pouch that contains the testes
Corpus luteum
ovarian structure that forms from a follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen
Gynecology
the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene of women
Gametes
Sex cell
Epididymis
a convoluted tubule in each testis
Puberty
the time of life when sex glands become functional
Urology
the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the urinary tract or urogenital system
Diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Semen
thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system
Menopause
the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
Somatic cell
body cell
Haploid
of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
Vas deferens (ductus)
A long tube the sperm travel through; joins with seminal vessicle to form ejaculatory duct
Spermatogenesis
development of spermatozoa
Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
infectious disease spread by sexual contact
Oogenesis
development of ova
Synapsis
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis (forming of tetrad)
Seminal vesicle
adds nutrient fluid to semen during ejaculation
Prostate gland
a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra
Uretha
a tube in which urine leaves the body
Tetrads
the paired homologous chromosomes, now consisting of four chromatids
Circumcision
cut the foreskin off male babies or teenage boys
Gonadotropin
any hormone that stimulates the gonads
Fimbraie
finger like projections, sweeps the ovum into the fallopian tubes
Cilia
The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner
Pap smear
a sample of secretions and superficial cells of the uterine cervix and uterus
Colposcopy
Visual examination of the vagina and cervix
Morula
a solid mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits
Gestation
the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)
Karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes