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108 terms

Chemistry Semester 1 Final

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Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
chemistry
the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
Atoms
smallest particles of matter
molecules
2 or more atoms that are bonded
organic chemistry
thestudy of all chemicals containing carbon
inorganic chemistry
the study of chemicals that in general do nto contain carbon
Biochemistry
the study of processess that take place in the lving rganism
aalytical chemsitry
the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter
physical chemistry
deals with the steps, rate and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
pure chemistry
the pursuit of chemical knowledge for the sake of knowledge
applied chemistry
research that is directed toward a practical goal or application
extensive properties of matter
a property that depend on the amount of matter in a sample
intensive properties
a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample
solid
closely packed, low enrgy, definite shape and volume
liquid
moderate distance, moderate attraction, medium energy
gas
great distance, vwery little attraction, high energy
energy
the capacity or ability to do work
kinetic enrgy
energy in motion or being used
potential energy
stored energy
heat
is the sum of kinetic energy in all the particles in an object.
temperature
how we measure heat
calorie
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperatures of one gram of water one degree celsius
formula for calories
c=(g)(∆T)
mixture
physical blend of 2 or more components
heterogenious mixture
nit uniform throughout
homogenious mixture
uniform throughout
Democrotis
first to suggest a small, indivisible basic particle of matter
John Dalton
First atomic theory
First atomic Theory
1. elements are composed of Atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are indentical
3. atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element
4. Atoms of one element combine with atoms of other elements to form compunds
Law of definite proportions
in a pure compund, the elemnts combine in definite proportions to each other
Thompson
discovered the electron by cathode ray tube test, and found the rasin bun theory
Raisin bun theory
"dough" had the positive charge, with negative "raisins" sprinkled throughout
Rutherford
found the proton, through gold foil experiment,
Nuclear atomic model
electrons are on outside, and move in orbits around the small dense positiviley charged inner core. (after gold foil)
Isotopes
discovered by JJ Thompson
Chadwick
Nuetrons
atomic number
number of protonsin the nucleus
atomic mass
sum of protons and nuetrons rounded
wavelength and frequency formula
Speed of light=(wavelength)(frequency)
wavelength
distance between neighboring crests
frequency
how many waves passing a point in a given time
inverted
wavelength and frequency have a ___ relationship
electrons spend most of their time in _____
ground state
ground state
where electron can have the most stability and least energy
excited states
when an electron recieves too much energy and must go to a higher energy level
photons
form of energy taken in and given off of an electron
quantum
an indivisible and elementary entity
electron cloud
area outside of the nucleus where there is the greatest probobility of finding on electron at any given time
quantum numbers
a set of four symbols used to describe the position of electrons in orbitals
orbital
a 3-D region about the nucleus in which a particular electron can be located
principle quantum number
indicates probable distance of an orbital from the nucleus
orbital quantum number
describes the shape of an orbital
Magnetic quantum number
gives the position in spaces about the 3 axis
spin quantum number
electrons can spin counter clockwise(-1/2) or clockwise (1/2)
Aufbau Principle
an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can recieve it
Hunds' Rule
suborbitals of equal energy levels are each occupied by one elctron before any is occupied by a second
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same for quantum number
orbital notation
Li 3electrons ↑↓ ↑
Electron configuration Notation
B 5 electrons 1s² 2s² 2p¹
Periodic Law
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
Metals
Generally good conductors of heat and electric current.
Nonmetals
Poor conductors of heat and electric current.
Metalloid
Generally has similar properties to those of both metals and nonmetals.
Alkali Metals
Group 1A
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2A
Halogens
Nonmetals of group 7A
Noble Gases
Group 8A
Representative Elements
Groups 1A through 7A
Transition Metals
D Orbitals
Inner Transition Metals
F Orbitals
Atomic Radius
One half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined.
Ionization Energy
Energy required to remove an electron from an atom.
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.
Valence Electrons
Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms.
Octet Rule
In forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.
Halide Ions
The ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons.
Ionic Compound
A compound composed of cations and ions.
Ionic Bonds
The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds.
Formula Unit
The lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
Chemical Formula
Shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
Coordination Number
The number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal.
Metallic Bonds
Between valence electrons and metal ions.
Alloys
A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
Covalent Bond
Atoms held together by sharing electrons.
Diatomic Molecule
A molecule containing two atoms.
Molecular Compound
A compound composed of molecules.
Molecular Formula
The chemical formula of a molecular compound.
Single Covalent Bond
Two atoms held together by sharing one pair of electrons.
Structural Formula
Shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms.
Unshared Pair
A pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms.
Double Covalent Bond
A bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons.
Triple Covalent Bond
A bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons.
Coordinate Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons.
Polyatomic Ion
A tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
Bond Dissociation Energy
The required energy to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms.
Resonance Structures
Structures that occur when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion.
Molecular Orbitals
Orbitals that apply to the entire molecule.
Bonding Orbital
A molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond.
Sigma Bond
When two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular formula.
Pi Bond
The bonding electrons are found in a sausage shape region.
Tetrahedral Angle
Hydrogens in a methane molecule.
VSEPR Theory
The repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence electron pairs stay as far apart as possible.
Hybridization
When several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
When the atoms in a bond pull equally, the bonding electrons are shared equally.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally.
Polar Molecule
One end of the molecule is slightly negative, while the other end is slightly positive.
Dipole
Dipolar molecule
Hydrogen Bonds
A hyrdrogen covalently bonded to a very electonegative atom.