the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
smallest particles of matter
2 or more atoms that are bonded
thestudy of all chemicals containing carbon
the study of chemicals that in general do nto contain carbon
the study of processess that take place in the lving rganism
the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter
deals with the steps, rate and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
the pursuit of chemical knowledge for the sake of knowledge
research that is directed toward a practical goal or application
extensive properties of matter
a property that depend on the amount of matter in a sample
a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample
closely packed, low enrgy, definite shape and volume
moderate distance, moderate attraction, medium energy
great distance, vwery little attraction, high energy
the capacity or ability to do work
energy in motion or being used
is the sum of kinetic energy in all the particles in an object.
how we measure heat
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperatures of one gram of water one degree celsius
formula for calories
physical blend of 2 or more components
nit uniform throughout
first to suggest a small, indivisible basic particle of matter
First atomic theory
First atomic Theory
1. elements are composed of Atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are indentical 3. atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element 4. Atoms of one element combine with atoms of other elements to form compunds
Law of definite proportions
in a pure compund, the elemnts combine in definite proportions to each other
discovered the electron by cathode ray tube test, and found the rasin bun theory
Raisin bun theory
"dough" had the positive charge, with negative "raisins" sprinkled throughout
found the proton, through gold foil experiment,
Nuclear atomic model
electrons are on outside, and move in orbits around the small dense positiviley charged inner core. (after gold foil)
discovered by JJ Thompson
number of protonsin the nucleus
sum of protons and nuetrons rounded
wavelength and frequency formula
Speed of light=(wavelength)(frequency)
distance between neighboring crests
how many waves passing a point in a given time
wavelength and frequency have a ___ relationship
electrons spend most of their time in _____
where electron can have the most stability and least energy
when an electron recieves too much energy and must go to a higher energy level
form of energy taken in and given off of an electron
an indivisible and elementary entity
area outside of the nucleus where there is the greatest probobility of finding on electron at any given time
a set of four symbols used to describe the position of electrons in orbitals
a 3-D region about the nucleus in which a particular electron can be located
principle quantum number
indicates probable distance of an orbital from the nucleus
orbital quantum number
describes the shape of an orbital
Magnetic quantum number
gives the position in spaces about the 3 axis
spin quantum number
electrons can spin counter clockwise(-1/2) or clockwise (1/2)
an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can recieve it
suborbitals of equal energy levels are each occupied by one elctron before any is occupied by a second
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same for quantum number
Li 3electrons ↑↓ ↑
Electron configuration Notation
B 5 electrons 1s² 2s² 2p¹
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
Generally good conductors of heat and electric current.
Poor conductors of heat and electric current.
Generally has similar properties to those of both metals and nonmetals.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Nonmetals of group 7A
Groups 1A through 7A
Inner Transition Metals
One half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined.
Energy required to remove an electron from an atom.
The ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.
Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms.
In forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.
The ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons.
A compound composed of cations and ions.
The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds.
The lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
Shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
The number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal.
Between valence electrons and metal ions.
A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
Atoms held together by sharing electrons.
A molecule containing two atoms.
A compound composed of molecules.
The chemical formula of a molecular compound.
Single Covalent Bond
Two atoms held together by sharing one pair of electrons.
Shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms.
A pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms.
Double Covalent Bond
A bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons.
Triple Covalent Bond
A bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons.
Coordinate Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons.
A tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
Bond Dissociation Energy
The required energy to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms.
Structures that occur when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion.
Orbitals that apply to the entire molecule.
A molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond.
When two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular formula.
The bonding electrons are found in a sausage shape region.
Hydrogens in a methane molecule.
The repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence electron pairs stay as far apart as possible.
When several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
When the atoms in a bond pull equally, the bonding electrons are shared equally.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally.
One end of the molecule is slightly negative, while the other end is slightly positive.
A hyrdrogen covalently bonded to a very electonegative atom.