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deals with the steps, rate and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
First atomic Theory
1. elements are composed of Atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are indentical
3. atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element
4. Atoms of one element combine with atoms of other elements to form compunds
Law of definite proportions
in a pure compund, the elemnts combine in definite proportions to each other
Nuclear atomic model
electrons are on outside, and move in orbits around the small dense positiviley charged inner core. (after gold foil)
area outside of the nucleus where there is the greatest probobility of finding on electron at any given time
suborbitals of equal energy levels are each occupied by one elctron before any is occupied by a second
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
One half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined.
The ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.
Shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
Structures that occur when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion.
The repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence electron pairs stay as far apart as possible.
When several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
When the atoms in a bond pull equally, the bonding electrons are shared equally.
One end of the molecule is slightly negative, while the other end is slightly positive.
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