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anything that has mass and occupies space


the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes


smallest particles of matter


2 or more atoms that are bonded

organic chemistry

thestudy of all chemicals containing carbon

inorganic chemistry

the study of chemicals that in general do nto contain carbon


the study of processess that take place in the lving rganism

aalytical chemsitry

the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter

physical chemistry

deals with the steps, rate and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change

pure chemistry

the pursuit of chemical knowledge for the sake of knowledge

applied chemistry

research that is directed toward a practical goal or application

extensive properties of matter

a property that depend on the amount of matter in a sample

intensive properties

a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample


closely packed, low enrgy, definite shape and volume


moderate distance, moderate attraction, medium energy


great distance, vwery little attraction, high energy


the capacity or ability to do work

kinetic enrgy

energy in motion or being used

potential energy

stored energy


is the sum of kinetic energy in all the particles in an object.


how we measure heat


the amount of heat needed to raise the temperatures of one gram of water one degree celsius

formula for calories



physical blend of 2 or more components

heterogenious mixture

nit uniform throughout

homogenious mixture

uniform throughout


first to suggest a small, indivisible basic particle of matter

John Dalton

First atomic theory

First atomic Theory

1. elements are composed of Atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are indentical
3. atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element
4. Atoms of one element combine with atoms of other elements to form compunds

Law of definite proportions

in a pure compund, the elemnts combine in definite proportions to each other


discovered the electron by cathode ray tube test, and found the rasin bun theory

Raisin bun theory

"dough" had the positive charge, with negative "raisins" sprinkled throughout


found the proton, through gold foil experiment,

Nuclear atomic model

electrons are on outside, and move in orbits around the small dense positiviley charged inner core. (after gold foil)


discovered by JJ Thompson



atomic number

number of protonsin the nucleus

atomic mass

sum of protons and nuetrons rounded

wavelength and frequency formula

Speed of light=(wavelength)(frequency)


distance between neighboring crests


how many waves passing a point in a given time


wavelength and frequency have a ___ relationship

electrons spend most of their time in _____

ground state

ground state

where electron can have the most stability and least energy

excited states

when an electron recieves too much energy and must go to a higher energy level


form of energy taken in and given off of an electron


an indivisible and elementary entity

electron cloud

area outside of the nucleus where there is the greatest probobility of finding on electron at any given time

quantum numbers

a set of four symbols used to describe the position of electrons in orbitals


a 3-D region about the nucleus in which a particular electron can be located

principle quantum number

indicates probable distance of an orbital from the nucleus

orbital quantum number

describes the shape of an orbital

Magnetic quantum number

gives the position in spaces about the 3 axis

spin quantum number

electrons can spin counter clockwise(-1/2) or clockwise (1/2)

Aufbau Principle

an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can recieve it

Hunds' Rule

suborbitals of equal energy levels are each occupied by one elctron before any is occupied by a second

Pauli Exclusion Principle

no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same for quantum number

orbital notation

Li 3electrons ↑↓ ↑

Electron configuration Notation

B 5 electrons 1s² 2s² 2p¹

Periodic Law

When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.


Generally good conductors of heat and electric current.


Poor conductors of heat and electric current.


Generally has similar properties to those of both metals and nonmetals.

Alkali Metals

Group 1A

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group 2A


Nonmetals of group 7A

Noble Gases

Group 8A

Representative Elements

Groups 1A through 7A

Transition Metals

D Orbitals

Inner Transition Metals

F Orbitals

Atomic Radius

One half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined.

Ionization Energy

Energy required to remove an electron from an atom.


The ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.

Valence Electrons

Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms.

Octet Rule

In forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.

Halide Ions

The ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons.

Ionic Compound

A compound composed of cations and ions.

Ionic Bonds

The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds.

Formula Unit

The lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.

Chemical Formula

Shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance.

Coordination Number

The number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal.

Metallic Bonds

Between valence electrons and metal ions.


A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.

Covalent Bond

Atoms held together by sharing electrons.

Diatomic Molecule

A molecule containing two atoms.

Molecular Compound

A compound composed of molecules.

Molecular Formula

The chemical formula of a molecular compound.

Single Covalent Bond

Two atoms held together by sharing one pair of electrons.

Structural Formula

Shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms.

Unshared Pair

A pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms.

Double Covalent Bond

A bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons.

Triple Covalent Bond

A bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons.

Polyatomic Ion

A tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.

Bond Dissociation Energy

The required energy to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms.

Resonance Structures

Structures that occur when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion.

Molecular Orbitals

Orbitals that apply to the entire molecule.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond.

Sigma Bond

When two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular formula.

Pi Bond

The bonding electrons are found in a sausage shape region.

Tetrahedral Angle

Hydrogens in a methane molecule.

VSEPR Theory

The repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence electron pairs stay as far apart as possible.


When several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals.

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

When the atoms in a bond pull equally, the bonding electrons are shared equally.

Polar Covalent Bond

A covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally.

Polar Molecule

One end of the molecule is slightly negative, while the other end is slightly positive.


Dipolar molecule

Hydrogen Bonds

A hyrdrogen covalently bonded to a very electonegative atom.

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