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University of Southern Maine CON 252 Fall 2011 Human Nutrition

Define Low-Birthweight

a birthweight less than 5.1 pounds; indicates probable poor health in the newborn and probable poor nutrition status of mother.

What is considered normal birthweight range?

Normal birthweight for a full-term baby is 6.2 lbs to 8.2 lbs

Define premature

Baby is born early and the weight is appropriate for gestational age

Define Small for Gestational Age

The baby's birthweight is not appropriate for normal babies at the same age.

Define placenta

An organ that developes inside the uterus early in pregnancy, in which maternal and fetal blood circulates in close proximity and exchange materials

Define amniotic sac

the "bag of waters" in the uterus in which the fetus floats.

Define umbilical cord

The ropelike structure through which the fetus's veins and arteries reach the placenta

Define critical period

A finite period during development in which certain events occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages; usually a period of rapid cell division.

How early should a woman begin preparing for pregnancy?

3 months prior to pregnancy.

Energy RDA for 2nd and 3rd trimesters:

+300 kcal/day on average

Protein RDA during pregnancy:

+10 g/day on average

Recommended Carb intake during pregnancy:

about 50% of energy intake. In a 2,000kcal diet, 1,000 kcal should be carbs.

Folate RDA during pregnancy:

600 ug/day on average

Energy RDA of breastfeeding women

+500 kcal/day

Recommended weight gain for Underweight woman (BMI<19)

Gain of 28 to 40 lbs.

Recommended weight gain for normal weight woman (BMI 19-25)

Gain of 25 to 35 lbs.

Recommended weight gain for overweight woman (BMI 26-29)

Gain of 15 to 25 lbs.

Recommended weight gain for obease woman (BMI >30)

Gain of a minimum of 13 lbs.

Pregnancy and Physical activity

*eat enough to support the energy needs of pregnancy and physical activity
*don't lay on your back after 4 months
*if you weren't super active before, don't become a super athlete
*excercise on a regular basis

Define gestational diabetes

the detection of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.

Signs/symptoms of preclampsia

a condition characterized by hypertension, fluid retention, and protein in the urine.

Definen eclampsia

A severe stage of preclampsia in which convulsions occur

Most common symptom of preclampsia


How do you diagnose preclampsia?

Test for excess protein in the urine.

Common actions to alleviate nausea in pregnancy

*On waking, arise slowly
*eat dry toast or crackers before getting out of bed
*Eat frequent, small meals
*when nauseated, avoid citrus juice, water, milk, coffee and tea.

Common actions to prevent or relieve heartburn

*eat frequent, small meals
*drink liquids between meals
*Wait an hour after eating before lying down
*wait 2 hours after eating before exercising

Define apagar score

A system of scoring an infant's physical condition right after birth.

What are the 5 things tested in the Apagar score?

Heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, response to stimuli, and color

Define fetal alcohol syndrome

The cluster of symptoms seen in an infant or child whose mother consumed excessive alcohol during pregnancy.

Define lactation

production and secretion of breast milk for the purpose if nourishing an infant.

What are the benefits of breast feeding?

*breast milk offers immunologic properties
*breast milk is bacteria free
*it contains the right amount of nutrients
*breast milk is sterile and always perfect quality
*breast milk is given on supply and demand
*breast milk is always the right temperature
*it's free

How much weight should a healthy baby gain in the first 4 months of life?

The birthweight should double in 4 months.

How much weight should a healthy baby gain in the firsy year of life?

The birthweight should triple in the first year.

How many calories should a baby recieve?

25 kcal/ kg of weight

True or False: Formula fed babies have a steady gain of weight but tend to weigh more as adults.


True or false: Breast milk has low-energy density.

False. Breast milk is very energy dense. 55-60% of formula and breastmilk is fat.

Define alpha-lactalbumin

The cheif protein in human breast milk.

Define colostrum

A milklike secretion from the breast that is rich in protective factors.

When does colostrum appear?

Colostrum is present for the first day or so after delivery, before the milk appears.

What are the 3 different types of baby formula?

1. Liquid concentrate
2. Powdered formula
3. Ready-to-feed

How long should a healthy infant be fed breastmilk or formula?

4 to 6 months

When should a healthy baby start eating food?

6 months- An iron fortified cereal.

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