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Art Appreciation Chapter 13: Architecture
Terms in this set (57)
standardized Greek architectural designs of columns or buildings
all three architectural style has similar feature of column
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian- begins with most austere and moves toward most decorated of columns/capitals
no base (nothing separating it from floor), plain slab stone capital (capital- the topmost part between shaft of column and roof or lintel) (7c. BCE).
(gradually replaced Doric) stepped base &capital with 2 spirals or volutes (6th c. B.C.E)
Fig. 14.26 Parthenon - 447 - 432 BCE
detailed stepped base & capital with a stylized bouquet of acanthus leaves (4th c. B.C.E)
a half-round arch extended in depth in an interior space
- in reality many arches placed flush behind other (like a tunnel)
-creates a large interior space
-consistently became hallmark of Romanesque churches in later Medieval era
10 to 12centuries in Europe,
-unified the interior visually, providing a soaring, majestic climate to rhythms announced by arch below
art dominant in Europe from 10th-12th century. Influenced by Roman architecture. It emphasizes the round arch and the barrel vault
-few windows and dark inside
Fig. 13.10 Interior Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy - Conques France, built c. 1050-1120
- housed small icon of the bone of Sainte Foy
- previously most Christian churches in Europe were made out of WOOD w/ arches spanning interior columns and ceilings comprised of wooden trusses w/ a pitched roof
(interior of Sainte Foy ) Nave - the taller central space flanked by aisles in basilicas or churches - ceiling over nave is long stone barrel vault
- supported by columns and arches along the nave AND secondary support from the groin vaults and walls of the side aisles à creates a strong buttress system
-on one side they used a groin vault and bays
the taller central space flanked by aisles in basilicas or churches
style of art from the 10-16th centuries, mostly in cathedrals. Characterized by soaring interiors, large stained glass windows, pointed arches, and flying buttresses
- Architects found the disadvantage of round arches & barrel vaults - would limit their height, interiors are dark, and their windows are small
- Gothic architects invented the pointed arch to allow for greater heights. (didn't need heavy mass of materials throughout curve of vault (roof in the form of an arch) as long as major point of intersection were reinforced called ribs (visible on nave ceiling).
an exterior support that counteracts the thrust of an arch, dome, or wall and runs from a freestanding pier to an outer wall
-built in fear that windows would weaken the walls due to arches outward forces
If you stand away from a wall & push on it with your arms, your body is a: Pier.
Your arms are the flying buttresses.
an open cylindrical interior space, usually covered by a dome
a horizontal structural element supported at one end only, with the other end projecting into space
Post & lintel
13.2 Hypostyle Hall from Amon-Mut-Khonsu, Luxor-- , hypostyle hall-stylized papyrus-flower buds columns
Port du Gard
- crosses Gardon River in southern France, 3 layers of arches in varying sizes
- strong, durable and able to span great distances b/c of arches
-exemplifies best qualities of arch construction
Nave, Cathedral of Notre -Dome
pointed arch (groin vault and bays), ____ style, ribs, tall nave
- tall nave, weight is forced down column from pointed arch at a steeper angle, allowing greater height
- groin vaults on ceiling now has better reinforcement at intersecting points called RIBS (visible on nave ceiling)
- walls became screens with addition of vast stained glass windows
Rotunda, Oculus, Coffer
Pantheon (interior) is a _______
_______- Opening at the top of a dome, "the eye of god"
_____ -a recessed, geometrical panel in a ceiling, often used in multiples as decorative element
dome creates wide open unobstructed space
- built with concrete and stone veneer--- looks like solid stone
Portico, or porch- Visitors enter the Roman Pantheon through this opening in the round building
acres, 108 ft. high
- built in 16 weeks - Joseph Paxton - a greenhouse designer
- made for Exhibition Hall for "works of Industry of All Nations" - success of industrial revolution - over 14,000 exhibitors from all over the world
- cast-iron structure covered with cast plate glass (large but strong sheets of glass) - 1st skeleton & skin bldg
- also had 1st major installation of public toilets - including flushing toilets for men
- relocated building after Exhibition to South London but destroyed by Fire in 1936
Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building
Famous quip - "form follows function."
- cost effective function of steel bldg and form
- 10 story red brick (reflect traditional architecture and make building look sturdy)
- supporting piers on the corners, vertical piers, staggered between the windows
- horizontally cornice divides 2nd/3rd floors
- deep cornice at roofline (classical element) & below a wide frieze of sculptural ornamentation
- later developed into modern day skyscraper
Fig. 13.29 Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater (reinforced concert)
- ONE of most famous Wright/Cantilever construction houses
- tried to make house blend into environment - family wanted view of waterfall and stream but he built house on top of stream and waterfall!
- ______ed terraces extend over the water, projecting like concrete waterfalls and the stone ledge below
symbolic of architecture, buildings.
Having "a roof over our heads" means security
- throughout history, man has sought refuge from natural elements
-architecture demands structural stabilization (engineering- structural systems on which architecture is based on)
Structural Systems in Architecture:
-building defiance of _____
-solution to building is _____- certain materials are better suited for some structures than others
FIRST, begin with a _____ (a diagram) to create a 3d space for people and animals (essentially, what architecture is)
post and lintel
The _________ construction is defined as two uprights that support a horizontal crosspiece.
shell system, skeleton-and-skin system
2 basic families of structural systems:
The Shell System
the same material is used for structural support & sheathing (covering), such as brick, stone, adobe (mud bricks covered with a layer of mud) or wood (log cabins.)
-structural materials comprise the walls and roof- mark boundary between inside and outside and exterior surface
-prevailed until 19th century, today the development of strong cast material (ex plastics) brought renewed interest in shell structure
The Skeleton-and-Skin System
like the human body - uses a strong material for support (in skyscrapers, steel) & lighter material to cover it (like glass or aluminum siding)
-US homes are built with skeleton of wood beams nailed together, topped with sheathing of light wood boards, shingles, aluminum siding,etc
-skeleton-and-skin construction largely product of Industrial Revolution
-not until mid-19 century steel for beams or metal nails be manufactured for practical quantities
Weight and tensile Strength
The structural systems must deal with:
each structural member must support weight (think of 4 people supporting a rigid body)
the ability of a material to span horizontal distances with minimum support from underneath
-refers to amount of tensile (stretching) stress a material can withstand before it bends or breaks. Its the ability of material to span horizontal distances without continuous support from below
Aka. "stacking and piling"
Most of the weight is at the bottom - walls get thinner towards the top.
The structure tapers inward, or narrows, toward the top.
stacks of stones, brick, or earth
- simplest method for building, suitable for brick, stone, above, ice blocks, etc. Builder constructs walls by piling layers upon layers, most of the weight is at the bottom - walls get thinner towards the top (almost tempting inward). The roof is lightweight, such as adobe, wood or thatch.
- stable because greatest weight is concentrated at the bottom and weight diminished gradually as walls grow higher
-exterior of shell constructions, thick walls, small, if any openings
- have few openings (windows and doors) and must be small. (The round arch and vault allow for bigger openings.) because method doesn't allow for supports of material above void
Fig. 13.1 Great Friday Mosque at Djenne - Mali, 13th century, original, rebuilt in 1907
-adobe construction, walls lean slightly inward give it sculptural quality
-gentle tapering walls and small windows. Wooden poles serve as anchor the scaffolding
Post & Lintel Construction
At least two posts or columns (uprights pieces) support a lintel or beam (horizontal crosspiece).
Most common materials are stone or wood, but neither has great tensile strength, so a great many posts must be used.
simple method (ancient technique)
-Most common materials are stone or wood, but neither has great tensile strength, so a great many posts must be used.
Posts (vertical) - separated by space and a horizontal support (lintel) spans the distance between 2 posts and carries weight down
- can be repeated to create a long wall or series of post and lintel supports
-favorited for at least 4 thousand years, to raise roof and provide open space underneath
Post & Lintel Construction
(13.2) Hypostyle Hall of Temple of Amon-Mut Khonsu
Post-and-lintel construction, hypostyle hall-stylized papyrus-flower buds columns
____ post-and-lintel= temples, standard feature
Post- and Lintel is also found in GREECE
- created standardized forms for column decorations
- evolved into 3 elevated systems (three architectural styles)
Greek standard material: stone
Fig. 13.4 Temple of Athena Nike - Acropolis, Greece , 427 - 424 BCE
-small temple on Acropolis, Ionic - at top is triangular pediment
- rather feminine, thinly tapered
-took Egyptian architecture called ______
From post and lintel structure came the solution of How to Span large areas inside a space
Architrave, Frieze, Cornice, Pediment
Entablature: Egyptian architecture
plain horizontal stone lintels- consists of three basic elements
_______ : simple, unadorned band of lintels (collection of lintels make a architrave)
_____ : area above architrave. Ornamented with sculpture relief
______ : frieze capped by shelf like projection (frames pediment)
_______ : entablature supports a triangular element (called pediment)- It's crowned by its own cornice
-ornamented with sculpture in relief
elements of it first codified and named by the Greeks, then adapted and modified by Romans
-used on banks, churches, government buildings, museums. Etc
post and lintel
Chinese & Japanese Architecture Characteristics:
-use _____ and _____ construction, but in contrast with Greece and Rome, they use wood instead of stone.
The roofs curve gracefully & appear to float. A complex bracket system distributes the weight.
A flexible stepped truss system controls the pitch (steepness) & curve of the roof.
Japanese: (13.6) Byodo-in -built as a palace then converted to a Buddhist shrine in 1052 BCE
The roofs curve gracefully & appear to float. A complex system distributes the weight. A flexible stepped truss system controls the pitch (steepness) & curve of the roof.
Round Arch, keystone
invented during Mesopotamian period (ancient Babylon) but perfected by Romans
-arch incorporates more complex forces of tension (pulling apart) and compression (pushing together)
-roman arch- semicircle
-curve made possible by wedge shaped voussoirs (stone) meets at a perpendicular to curve of arch,locked in place by central ______ (arch under construction must be supported from below-usually wooden frame)
-arch exerts an outward thrust at its base
-extensive use of arches found in aqueducts
-arch enables the architecture to open up large spaces in a wall without risking building's structural soundness.
-admits light, reduces weight of walls and materials needed
weight and darkness
Drawbacks of round arch: arch could only be as high as it's width
Two other difficulties: ______ and _________
Barrel vaults: physical and visual heavy, huge mass of stone to maintain structure stability (outward thrust along base). Solved with gothic period
Groin Vaults, Bays
______ _____ - the result when 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles to each other
directing weight and stress down into the 4 corners- columns (dividing space into rectangular segura called bays
- creates more support to push down onto 4 columns
_____- each contains one groin vault, architects could cover a long span safely and economically.
Repetition of bays creates rhythmic pattern
Because it is pointed, the weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so the arch can taller.Does not need heavy masses of material, as long as the ribs (major points of intersection) are reinforced.
• More openings can be used, & so more light comes in.
• Stained glass was used to admit colored light.
sort of architectural crown at top of building - impact of grandeur - very old
-shape of hemisphere/ half globe. Dome is a arch rotated 360 degrees on axis, some have pointed arches at top
-stress of dome similar to arch, except spread una circle around dome's perimeter (unless dome is a buttressed- supported on all sides outside
-often used for decorative purpose and opens up interior space-
- a construction technique in which each course of stone projects slightly beyond the one below (eventually opening is bridged), used to create space-spanning forms that resembled the arch, vault, and dome, though didn't bear weight the same way (channeling weight outward and downward, so not enable construction large, unobstructed interior space)
-like Roman Arch- extended in depth to create vault form, or rotated to create dome
-Indian architecture--- based on post-and-lintel construction
major development occurred in 19th century w/ introduction of IRON as a structural support, not a new material, had been used for tools & weapons long before but now realized its strength as a support
Fig. 13.22 Eiffel Tower - 1889 Gustave Eiffel World's Fair
-remarkable structure for future, becuase skelton was proudly showed itself without benefits of cosmetic embellishment (no skin)
>two concepts emerged:
1) metal in and of itself can make beautiful architecture
2) metal can provide a solid framework for a very large structure, self-sustaining, and permanent
-Iron for structural members- a breakthrough in mid 19th ce. Industrial revolution introduced: ____
(opened way to other construction)
created in 1833, Chicago- is true tp skeleton-and-skin method.
-developed for 2 innovations: improved methods for milling lumber and mass-produced nails. Form this first framework/ skeleton by nailing together boards, the roof, and sheathes walls in clapboard, shingles, stucco, etc. Glass for windows.
until 19th ce, houses were shell constructed- made of brick and stone with load-bearing construction or post-and-lintel structure (timber assembled by complicated notching and joinery, or wooden pegs)
-today this method is most popular in Western countries (though has limits- not used for skyscrapers, because steel is needed)
building is characterized by clean lines, rectangular geometric spaces, minimal ornamentation, and steel-and-glass construction (bones of building were suppose to show and be only ornament necessary
example: (13.25) Lever House in New York-can be compared to 2 shimmering glass dominoes, 1 resting horizontally on freestanding supports, other balanced upright and off-center
uses mesh or iron/steel rods into the concrete thus strengthening
-concrete used by Romans.
-Make concrete by mixing cement, gravel, and water, pour it into a mold and set to hardness. Problems: brittle and low tensile strength
-late 19th century method developed for reinforcement concrete forms by embedding mesh or rods of iron or steel inside concrete (metal contributes tensile strength, concrete provides shape/surface)
-used in many structures. like free-form, organic shapes
-works like shell construction (because metal and concrete bond, form structure that self-sustaining
Frank Lloyod wright
- invented what became known as the Prairie Style
- lived worked in Chicago area built houses/buildings to reflect aesthetic of landscape - low, flat, horizontal emphasis, and natural organic materials
-YET, utilized reinforced concrete to implement his designs
Louis Sullivan embraced ______________ as a method for his buildings in the late 19th century becuase this skeletal structure allowed a taller building to be opened up with windows instead of brick or stone walls.
A _________ is an exterior support or extended arch that flows down into a pier used for support on a tall building, typically witnessed in Gothic cathedrals.
Recessed rectangles or squares in a ceiling, which can lessen the weight of the roof (particularly in a dome), is described as a ______ ceiling.
post and lintel
The _________ construction is defined as two uprights that support a horizontal crosspiece.
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
The Greek orders, an architectural system used to designate styles of temples and columns, are referred to as:
standardized Greek architectural designs of columns or buildings.
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