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Culturalr Pluralism Final

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According to the 2000 census what percentage of children were born to recent immigrants?
20%
Among the following historic and contemporary perspectives towards ethnic diversity, which remains the dominant perspective of most Americans?
Anglo Conformity
What was the idea behind the "American Melting Pot" perspective?
Immigrants need not abandon their entire heritage, but instead melt into the dominant culture and form a new identity.
The American Melting Pot perspective, a way of describing how would differences would blend into one, new American Identity.
Was first coined by early 19th century playwright, Israel Zangwill.
Which statement is incorrect about Terry's "ups" and "downs"?
"Ups" are in constant competition with "downs"
According to Terry's up/down metaphor which of the following persons is exclusively a member of "up" groups?
Jason, a white married male with 2 children who attends the Methodist church.
What is Cultural Pluralism?
Equal coexistence of diverse cultures in mutually supportive relationships.
The Pluralism is not based on...
People in a diverse culture should conform to the dominant culture.
According to pluralists, what is tolerance?
Restraint but not understanding about differences.
How does pluralism view human differences?
Pluralism encourages people to identify with their heritage as well as identifying themselves as Americans.
A fast food chain admitted that they donated money to a group that was anti-gay marriage. Many people refused to eat at their establishments and some even picketed the restaurants on weekends. What type of tactic was being used to promote social justice?
Applying economic pressure.
What is the first step and most basic tactic when trying to promote social change?
Dialoguing
What is the practice of acknowledging the activities and contributions of one racial group over others within a multicultural community?
Cultural racism
Which of the following is an example of cultural racism in a school curriculum?
Librarians stocking the shelves with multicultural literature that reflects the cultural and racial composition of the neighborhood.
Marcia, a white college student, is being interviewed about friendships. When asked if she has any friends of color she states she doesn't but explains that it is not her fault because there aren't a lot of them in her school and her parents won't allow her to go to any sketchy neighborhoods. She does quickly add that she knows many people of color and interacts with them at work and at the mall when they ring her up and she doesn't care what color they are. This is an example of what type of racism?
Aversive racism
Which person is not present when backstage racist behavior occurs?
A person of color
Which or the following is not an example of front stage racist behaviors?
Telling racist jokes in front of people of color
What is the purpose of Affirmative Action?
To insure qualified minority applicants are given equal employment opportunities.
After interviewing one black male and one white male for a job, the interviewer wants to hire the white person. The Human resources office wants a legitimate reason for this hiring to avoid breaking Affirmative Action legislation. All of the following reasons for not hiring an applicant are illegal under Affirmative Action except which one?
The black candidate had great computer skills but he did not have the required computer language certifications that the job requires.
Which of the following is the best definition of institutional racism?
Established laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect and produce racial inequities in American society.
How is word of mouth hiring used in a discriminatory way?
People hired by this method are more likely to be white male to reflect the majority of white males in the work force.
What was the purpose for outdoor relief?
To provide food, funds and assistance to the poor people of England and the colonies.
During Roosevelt's tenure as president, the federal government became an employer to thousands of workers through all of the following programs except...
National War Labor Board (NWLB)
The best definition for individual classism is:
Prejudiced attitudes and behaviors against others based on perception of their income or social standing.
Americans are most likely to blame poverty on...
Lack of effort or ability
Which of the following is not an accurate statement concerning distribution of wealth in the United States?
Currently the top 4% of Americans have as much wealth as the lowest 35%.
Which group is most likely to live in poverty?
Female headed households with no spouse.
What is the relationship between family income and SAT scores?
The higher the income, the higher the score.
What is the relationship between proper nutrition and academics?
Children who eat a nutritious breakfast do better on skills related to visual processing, auditor attention and short term memory.
The definition of ageism has developed over many years. Which of the following definitions is not included in the definition of ageism?
The process of stripping someone of their identity and replacing it with the stereotypical image of an elderly person.
What can be done to reduce the impact of poverty in school?
Furnish tax incentives for worksites to provide child care centers for low income workers.
How has sexist language changed to be more inclusive?
The American Psychiatric Association style manual requires writing be free of sexual bias and implications.
Which definition best defines sexism?
An attitude, action, or institutional structure that limits a person on the basis of sex.
A male chauvinist is...
A person who believe in the superiority of males.
Which definition best describes institutional sexism?
The consequences of laws, customs, and practices that discriminate against people because of their sex.
What is the primary reason the gap in men's and women's salaries is decreasing?
Men's salaries are either at a standstill or actually going down.
According to MacKinnan (1987, p.82), which of the following is not in the top four reasons for not reporting a rape?
They know their attackers and don't want to get them in trouble.
How does gender disparity affect lifetime earnings of women?
Women with professional degrees will earn about one million dollars less than a man with a professional degree.
Two of the most common complaints at work concerning sexual harassment are...
Sexually suggestive remarks and persistent requests for a date.
In accordance with the EEOC guidelines, what is the first step that must be taken when being sexually harassed in a manner that is not considered sever?
Tell the harasser the behavior is unwelcome.
What is the heterosexual assumption?
That everyone is born heterosexual.
What were the findings of the Kinsey report of 1948?
Human sexuality is on a continuum that ranges from heterosexual to homosexual.
What is heterosexism?
The oppression of people who are not heterosexual.
In what year did the American Psychological Association (APA) declare that homosexuality was not a mental illness?
1973
Using anthropological evidence and child studies, to what did Pillard attribute sexual orientation?
An innate personality trait that can be observed even in young children.
What is cultural heterosexism?
The societal promotion that heterosexuality is the norm and everything else is deviant.
What is gay bashing?
The physical assault of a person perceived to be gay.
The term gay rights refers to...
Protecting the civil rights of homosexuals in areas such as those of housing, employment, and medical care.
Who is most likely to be a perpetrator of anti-gay violence?
Martin, a 17 year old male.
What is institutional heterosexism?
Established laws, customs, and practices that discriminate against people who are not heterosexual.
What is ableism?
The belief that people with disabilities are inferior to able-bodied people.
What was the first public acknowledgment that people with disabilities were a minority and in need of civil rights protections?
The Rehabilitation Act
What Act provides people with disabilities legal recourse against discrimination?
The American Disabilities Act (ADA).
Which historical perception of people with disabilities defined the disability as being a temporary condition that could be cured with the right treatment?
As a diseased organism.
What is the societal promotion of negative beliefs that tends to portray people with disabilities as deviant or incompetent?
Cultural Ableism.
What is the clearest and most positive example of a disability culture?
The Deaf Community
What are the prejudiced attitudes and actions towards people with disabilities based on our assumptions about them?
Individual ableism
What does the medical model of disability assume?
That it is a biological problem and a cure should be found.
What is a disability?
A restriction of ability or activity caused by an impairment.
Phillipa uses a wheel chair to get from place to place. She is going to see an accountant to get her taxes done. Unfortunately she cannot get into the office because there are stairs but no ramps to get into the building. This barrier causes her to have a(n)...
Handicap
What usually happened to patients in institutions when states passed deinstitutionalization laws?
They returned to their families.
What is the most inexpensive way to house and care for people with disabilities?
At home with personal assistance.
What is the purpose of universal design?
To create products and environments capable of being used by all people.
What was one purpose of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHC) in 1975?
To define the term "learning disabilities"
What is the difference in a diverse society and a pluralist society?
A pluralistic society is a society where diversity is accepted and supported.
What is multicultural education based on?
Preparing students to be active in a diverse democratic society.
How do essentialist teachers test their students' knowledge?
Through objective tests.
What is the goal of an essentialist teacher?
To teach students to analyze perspectives and use their analysis to understand inconsistencies.
The concept of multicultural education is concerned with all of the following except...
A core of knowledge identified as critical for every child.
A hidden curriculum can be described as...
Subtle cultural messages learned from course curriculum, school policies, and school procedures that validate societal norms and values.
The order of Banks' approaches to educational reform is based on their increasing effectiveness in introducing multicultural concepts. The order is:
Contributions approach, additive approach, transformative approach, social action approach.
Which of Banks' approaches to multicultural education addresses the most basic of heroes and holidays and cultural information of diverse populations?
Contributions approach
Which of the following is not a primary focus of the "social reconstructionist approach" to education?
Focusing predominantly on cultural diversity.
Students are researching the history of California. Instead of just looking at it from the viewpoint of people who moved fro East to West, they are to research its history from the viewpoint of Native Americans, Asian immigrants, Mexicans, and women. This is an example of what teaching philosophy?
Global education.
What is at the core of culturally responsive teaching?
The belief that the cultural heritage of the child will not be a hindrance to academic success.
What was the original purpose of affirmative action?
To recruit and hire more African American workers in the federal government.
What is the first step a court orders to determine if an affirmative action plan is needed for a business?
An analysis of employee diversity is conducted to determine if it reflects the diversity of the applicant pool.
After interviewing for a federal job, Eric, a white male, argues that he did not get the job because the federal government is require to hire minorities and women based on affirmative action quotas. What is wrong with his argument?
...
What minority group has the largest amount of purchasing power in the United States?
Women
Following a string of racist incidents occurring at Denny's restaurants, the chain...
Reinvented itself by substantially increasing minority representation throughout all facets of the organization.
Recognition of the importance of diversity in the workplace...
Is a characteristic of most successful businesses because they understand the advantages of promoting workplace diversity.
Which of the following strategies would a business that wants a diverse workforce not use?
Only advertising in the local newspaper to get a workforce that reflects the local community.
Historically, diversity training was often poorly received however current diversity training is more successful because it...
Emphasized "sensitivity training."
Prior to the U.S. Military becoming all-volunteer...
Women held almost exclusively medical or administrative assignments.
____ is an extension of English culture and European civilization; it rejects diversity in favor of maintaining that everyone conform to the values, norms, and standards put in place by the founders of the country.
Anglo conformity
What are the four ideological perspectives regarding ethnic diversity?
Anglo conformity, melting pot, separatism, pluralism
Which immigrant group benefited from Anglo conformity?
Northern European ethnic immigrants
Which is an argument from people who oppose pluralism?
Contradicts the American emphasis on the individual by placing more importance on group membership in the creation of individual identity.
Which activity can create social change?
Employ tactics to persuade those in power to implement the solutions they advocate.
Established laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect and produce racial inequities in American Society is...
Institutional racism
A realtor showing homes to a white family in neighborhoods whose residents are predominantly white as well, is an example of...
Steering
Which has not been proposed as a remedy to address institutional racism?
Encourage word-of-mouth-hiring
What is colorblind racism?
Pretending not to notice race or assertions that race has no meaning.
All of the following are example of cultural racism, except?
Asians represented as standards for beauty with fair skin and almond eyes.
What was the Church's attitudes towards the poor?
It was due to sin and slothfulness.
Why were children eventually barred from poorhouses?
Because of the belief that children could be saved from poverty if they learned to not depend on charity.
Which of the following does not lead to poor academic achievement?
Eating a nutritious breakfast.
Who suffers most from poverty?
Children
How do we assist those who are in poverty?
Tax relief programs for the low-income families of America.
What are the Americans more comfortable talking about rather than racial issues?
Gender issues
By which year did individual states begin to pass legislation to grant women the right to own property and keep their earnings?
1830's
What does the word androgyny mean?
Belief that men and women share a variety of human traits that should be encouraged in both, as opposed to fostering certain traits.
During World War 2, what percentage of women became the majority of the workforce for the first time?
57%
After World War 2, which country was the only nation in the Western Hemisphere that refused to sign a statement issued by the United Nations supporting equal rights for women?
United States
What doe the acronym LGBT stand for?
Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender
Tom and Jerry are both in their 30's and in an intimate, committed relationship with each other. They are not married by they share a condo together. What kind of relationship is this?
Domestic relationship
According to the 2010 census, the percentage of all same sex households raising children is:
15%
Which of the following is not a myth about homosexuality?
Homosexuals attempt to seduces vulnerable adolescents and recruit the into their lifestyle.
Ableism is...
The determination of an individual's abilities based on their disabilities.
What of the following acts provides people with disabilities a legal discourse against discrimination?
The American Disability Act
Which group of children are overrepresented in special education in at least 45 states?
Black children
___ is a restriction of functional activity caused by an impairment; while ___ is an environmental or attitudinal barrier that limits any normal role.
Disability; Handicap
What happened to the patients in institutions when states passed the deinstitutionalization laws?
They were suggested to move to community homes or groups.
Which area of study does essentialism not emphasize?
Art
Which of the following is not one of Banks' approaches to multicultural curriculum?
Implementation
What is on problem of traditional American education?
Emphasizes memorization of facts and teachers' words.
What is the hidden curriculum?
Teaching the norms and values of a society.
Which is one of the specific instructional strategies recommended for teachers?
Critical pedagogy
What American household has the least access to the internet?
Latinos
Who was the president to first use the phrase "affirmative action"?
JFK
Which University of California college was Alan Bakke rejected from?
UC Davis
Which is NOT a tactic to recruit a more diverse workforce?
Disseminating information on available jobs only to a small circle of people.
In which area has diversity increased?
Workforce, media, and military.