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56 terms

Final:Phil

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Of the following, our beliefs about freedom effect
All of the above
The view that freedom is an illusion and every event in the universe, including human actions, is brought about by previous events in accordance with the natural
determinism
According to d'Holbach's view, if you decide to commit suicide, what would this demonstrate regarding freedom?
Nothing
Who argued that we are free when our actions are a result of our "unimpeded rational desires?"
Schlick
Who argued that determinism cannot account for "the testimony of our direct, lived experience?"
James
Who believed that "we are condemned to be free," i.e., we are absolutely responsible to create our own meaningful existence.
Sartre
Who claimed that free choice is contingent on becoming aware of repressive forces and liberating oneself from them?
Grimshaw
The view of freedom that argues that some human actions are free if they are a result of internal motivations and not the product of external causes or influences
compatibilism
The view of freedom that claims that some events, including human actions, are not necessarily determined by previous events in accordance with the natural
indeterminism.
The view of freedom that argues that humans are able to make authentically free choices that are not determined by previous events in accordance with the natural laws that govern the universe is:
libertarianism
Belief in determinism prevents people from becoming better persons.
True
Belief in compatibilism prevents people from participating in a revolution.
False
Belief in indeterminism allows people to choose their spiritual destiny.
True
Belief in libertarianism allows people to avoid responsibility for their actions.
False
Dennett argues that freedom is an objective phenomenon distinct to humans.
True
External constraints are the limitations to our autonomy imposed by ourselves.
False
Internal constraints are the limitations imposed by our environment and circumstances.
False
Freedom is the ability to do what one wants.
false
Psychic coercion is an internal constraint that compromises one's autonomy and limits one's personal freedom.
True
To increase personal freedom, one must confront external and internal constraints, thus creating options from which to choose
True
Some events, including human actions, are not necessarily determined by previous events
Indeterminism
All events, including human actions are caused. However, some human actions are free if they are a result of internal motivations
Compatibilism
Humans are able to make authentically free choices that are not determined by previous events
Libertarianism
Every event, including human actions, is caused by previous events in accordance with the natural laws that govern the universe.
Determinism
Of the following, Socrates believed what about the soul?
It is Immortal
According to Plato, the soul consists of:
reason, physical appetite, and spirit
According to Descartes, what is the manner in which to seek the truth?
method and doubt
According to Descartes, the soul is governed by
God, laws of reason
According to Locke the mind is a
tabula rasa
Who argued that there is no self?
Hume
Who argued that we construct the self?
Kant
Who argued that mental states are brain states?
Churchland
who argued that the self is inseparable from the body's physiology?
Ryle
The Buddhist conception of annatta includes all of the following elements except
permanence
Churchland argued that (blank) will be eliminated once advances in neuroscience develop a vocabulary that will enable us to be objective about consciousness and human experience
folk psychology
the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence is
metaphysics
the study of moral values and principles
ethics
the branch of philosophy that seeks to establish the rules for correct reasoning and valid arguments
Logic
The study of knowledge
epistemology
the study of beauty, art, and taste
aesthetics
Irony is a form of rhetoric that has at least two conflicting meanings
true
Socrates believed 'the truth lies within us'
true
Socrates believed it was better to suffer wickedness than to commit it
true
Socrates believed 'no one unknowingly does evil'
false
Socrates believed 'we should strive for excellence in all areas of life'
false
Socrates was committed to making our actions reflect our convictions
true
Thales argued that water is the primary substance
true
Heraclitus argued that all things are in a constant state of changed and the universe is governed by LOGOS
true
Parmenides argued that reality is changing
false
reality is unchanging and eternal and change is an illusion
Parmenides
Air is the primary substance
Anaximenes
The universe is composed of matter and governed by nouse
Anaxagoras
all things are in a constant state of change and the universe is governed by logos
Heraclitus
the fundamental principles of the universe are mathematical relations
Pythagoras
all matter is composed of indivisible atoms
Democritus
the unexamined life is not worth living
Socrates