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42 terms

Ch. 15 The Chemical Senses

These are all from my prof's lecture and the textbook, Sensation and Perception 8E.
STUDY
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menstrual synchrony
By rubbing armpit sweat from "donor women" on the upper lips of women, McClintock supported hypothesis that olfaction is important in explaining:
more olfactory receptors
Dogs are more sensitive to smells than humans because dogs have many _______________ than humans.
50%
When presented with a common odor like banana or motor oil, participants can identify the odor approximately ________ of the time.
trichromatic coding for color
The relationship between an odorant's smell and its recognition profile is similar to ________ in vision.
2-DG (2-deoxyglucose technique)
The technique that involves injecting an animal with a radioactive molecule to see which part of the olfactory bulb is most activated by different chemicals.
more favorably
An onion smell is presented to a participant, and is told that it is "body odor" or it is "pizza." The participant will perceive the odor ____________ if it is labeled "pizza" than "body odor."
papillae
The tiny bumps on the tongue that contain the taste buds are the:
basic taste qualities
In regard to specificity vs. distributed coding , most researchers conclude:________________ are determined by specificity coding.
discriminating subtle differences
In regard to specificity vs. distributed coding , most researchers conclude: distributed coding is important for ________________________ .
both higher taste bud density and specialized receptors for "tasters."
The difference between "tasters" and "non-tasters" in the ability to taste PROP is due to:
5 - 7 weeks
The lifespan (neurogenesis) for olfactory receptors is:
1 - 2 weeks
The lifespan (neurogenesis) for taste (gustation) receptors is:
difference threshold
the smallest difference in the concentration of two odors that can be detected.
100,000
the number of odors that humans can discriminate between but not label accurately.
bass notes
a fragrance that is not as volatile and evaporates slowly
top notes
a fragrance that is highly volatile and evaporates quickly
8 - 50
Rats are ______ times more sensitive than humans to odors (depending on the odorant).
300 - 10,000
Dogs are _______ times more sensitive than humans to odors (depending on the odorant).
equally
Individual olfactory receptors for all of these animals (rats, dogs, humans) are ______ sensitive.
number
Even though humans are unaware of odors that other animals can detect, human's individual olfactory receptors are as sensitive as any animals. The difference lies in the ____________ of receptors they have.
1 molecule
Human olfactory receptors can be excited by just _____ _________ of odorant.
10 million
The number of olfactory receptors humans have.
1 billion
The number of olfactory receptors dogs have.
olfactometer
Measuring the difference threshold must be done with carefully controlled concentrations using a device called a ______________ . (p. 358)
11%
Research has shown the difference threshold to be approximately ___ . (p. 358)
30 litres per min
The optimal flow rate is _________ when we take a deep whiff. (The amount that allows our system to operate optimally.)
recognition threshold
The concentration needed to determine quality of an odorant.
poor smell classification system
An inability label or identify odorants is not caused by a lack of sensitivity but rather an inability to retrieve the name from memory as well as a __________________.
no specific language for odor quality
One reason researchers have found it difficult to map perceptual experience onto physical attributes of odorants is:
similar structure but smell different, and some that have different structures but smell the same.
Another reason researchers have found it difficult to map perceptual experience onto physical attributes of odorants is that some molecules have _______________________.
perceptually different.
Odor molecules can be structurally similar but ____________.
perceptually similar.
Odor molecules can be structurally different but ___________________.
olfactory mucosa
a dime sized region located at the top of the nasal cavity and just below the olfactory bulb that contains the receptors for the sense of smell.
chemical odorants
Like the rod and cone receptors in the retina contain molecules called visual pigments that are sensitive to light, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the mucosa contain molecules called olfactory receptors that are sensitive to _____________________.
350 types
the approximate number of different types of ORNs in the mucosa in humans and that each type has a protein that crosses the membrane seven times. (1,000 different types in mice).
a narrow range of odorants
what each type of olfactory receptor is sensitive to
recognition profiles
The pattern of activation of olfactory receptors caused by a particular odorant.
olfactory bulb
The structure that receives signals directly from the olfactory receptors. The olfactory bulb contains glomeruli, which receive these signals from the receptors.
glomeruli
Small structures in the olfactory bulb that receive signals from similar olfactory receptor neurons. One function of each of these is to collect information about a small group of odorants.
one or two
the number of glomeruli that receive signals from a particular type of ORN.
optical imaging and deoxyglucose (2DG)
Two techniques that have been used to determine how the glomeruli respond to different odorants.
both chemical structure and to perception.
The 2DG technique, used with behavioral testing, shows the pattern of neural activation is related to: ____________.