World Civilization Chapter 5
Terms in this set (89)
Hans and Roman Empires were larger and better controlled than the Assyrians, Persians, and Indians
T, they were the largest political entities the world had seen yet.
extended from Central Asia to the Pacific ocean, Liu Bang.
The number of Chinese cities increased.
The emergence of a free peasantry.
The strengthening of the nuclear family.
Rural inhabitants continued to predominate.
encompassed the lands around the Mediterranean , parts of the Middle East and western and central Europe.
The Silk Road
linked the Hans and Roman empires together commercially
Hero of early Rome, known for defending the bridge over the Tiber River.
Single-highhandedly saved Rome from invading Etruscan army. An officer who famously held his ground on a bridge over the Tiber River to protect Rome from the Etruscan
a peninsula extending about 750 miles from north to south, not very wide, averages about 120 miles across. The Apennines divides west from east. Fertile plains, ideal for farming. Rome located on the plain of Latium, 18 miles inland of the Tiber River, far from inland, built on 7 hills, safe from pirates (easily defended). Sicily lies just west of the toe of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Home of the Etruscans (N) and the Greeks (S). Possessed considerably more productive agricultural land than Greece, enabling it to support a large population. An important crossroad between the western and eastern ends of the sea.
Italy's Mediterranean empire.
Early Rome (753-509 BCE)
legend has it, Rome was founded by twin brothers (Romulus and Remus) in 753BCE. Lived in huts on top of hills. Pastoral people that spoke Latin which belonged to the Indo-European family of languages. Under the control of 7 kings, 2 of the last 3 were Etruscans. Fell under the influence of of the Etruscans for about 100 year during the period of the kings, then under Etruscan influence Rome began to emerge as a city. In 509 BCE when the monarchy was overthrown and a republican form of government was established, a new Rome emerged (fusion of Etruscan and native elements. Defeated Greeks 267BCE, conquered most of Italy by 264BCE.
people that lived north of Rome in Etruria. Responsible for and outstanding building program, constructed the first roadbed of the chief streets of Rome (The Sacred Way).
from a monarchy to a republican government, Rome felt threatened by enemies (Latin communities), so they embarked on a military course that led to the conquest of the Italian peninsula.
one of the chief ancient sources for history of the early Roman Republic, Rome was engaged in almost continuous warfare for the next 100 years. Used stories to teach Romans the moral values and virtues (tenacity, duty,courage, and especially discipline) that made Rome great.
Greek Colonization 750-550 BCE)
the Greeks had arrived on the Italian Peninsula in large numbers during the age of the Greek colonization. The Greeks originally settled in southern Italy, much influence on Rome, cultivated olives and grapes, passed on their alphabet and provided artistic and cultural models thru sculpture, architecture, and literature. Defeated by Romans by 267 BCE.
created in 338 BCE, allowed people-especially the Latins- full citizenship, remaining communities made allies,
"a land power", superb diplomats, excelled in making correct decisions, good persistent soldiers, established colonies-fortified towns- as they conquered, mobilized the entire military manpower of all Italy for its wars. After the overthrow of the monarchy, established a republican form of government. CEO's were called consuls
CEO's f the Roman Republic. 2 were chosen annually to administer the government and lead the army in battle.
the two senior Roman judges, who had executive authority when the consuls were away from the city and could also lead armies. office of praetors created in 366 BCE, in charge of civil law,
the leading council of the Roman Republic, composed of about three hundred men who served for life and dominated much of the political life of the Republic. could only advise the magistrates,
the chief popular assembly of the Roman Republic, it passed laws and elected the chief magistrates. organized by classes based on wealth, wealthy citizens had the majority.
council of the plebs
a council only for plebeians, after 287BCE its resolutions were binding on all Romans, came into being as a result of the struggle of the orders
A model dictator for the Romans. He organized an army, led the Romans to victory, attended victory celebrations, and returned to his farmland all within 16 days. known as the noblest Roman of them all.
great landowners who became the ruling class in the Roman Republic, constituted the aristocratic governing class. Were the only ones could be consuls, magistrates, and senators. Were able to vote, could be elected to govt offices, were able to marry but could not marry plebeians
class of Roman citizens who included the nonpatrician landowners, crafts people merchants, and small farmers in the Roman republic. Were citizens but did not have the same rights as the patricians. Were able to vote, could not be elected to govt offices, were able to marry but could not marry patricians. After 100's of years were successful over the patricians.
What was the importance of roads to the Roman and Han Empires?
Roads were originally constructed form military purposes, they came to be used for communications and commercial travel as well.
tribunes of the plebs
began in 494 BCE; were Roman officials who were given the power to protect plebeians against arrest by patrician magistrates. At this time, plebeians and patricians were now allowed to marry each other, plebeians were permitted to become consuls, in 287BCE (all citizens equal under the law) received the right to pass laws, proceeded the plebs (471 BCE),
The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean
264-133 BCE, began with the Punic wars,
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
What aspects of Mediterranean geography, combined with the territorial holdings and aspirations of Rome and the Carthaginians, made the Punic Wars more likely?
the fact that they were so close together and so close to the Mediterranean Sea, Agriculture, ability to transport things,
Latin word form Phoenician was Punicus, the Romans resolved to conquer Sicily.
with the development of its naval fleet became the first Roman province
the greatest of the Carthaginian generals began the 2nd Punic War 218-201 BCE, defeated the Romans, crossed the Alps with an army of 30,000-40, 000. in Cannae in 216 BCE Romans lost an army of 40,000 men.
Spain freed from the Carthagians
The Roman Conquest of Italy and the Mediterranean
B.C.E. Conquest of Latium completed
B.C.E. Creation of the Roman Confederation
B.C.E. First Punic War
B.C.E. Second Punic War 218-201
B.C.E. Battle of Cannae
B.C.E. Roman seizure of Spain
B.C.E. Battle of Zama 202
B.C.E. Third Punic War
B.C.E. Macedonia made a Roman province 148
B.C.E. Destruction of Carthage 146
B.C.E. Kingdom of Pergamum to Rome 133
became a Roman province called Africa. City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic (133-31 B.C.E.)
By the middle of the second century B.C.E., Roman domination of the Mediterranean Sea was complete. Yet the process of creating an empire had weakened the internal stability of Rome, leading to a series of crises that plagued the empire for the next hundred years.
Huge estates operated by slave labor that flourished in parts of the Roman Empire (singular latifundium).
The Collapse Of The Republic 12
The first century B.C.E. was characterized by two important features: the jostling for dominance of a number of powerful individuals and the civil wars generated by their conflicts.
richest man in Rome, General who defeated Spartacus. Crucified 6,600 slaves on the Alpennine way. He later served in the First Triumvirate. command in Spain, killed in 53 BCE
returned from a successful military command in Spain in 71 B.C.E. and had been hailed as a military hero, Roman general and statesman who quarreled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC), command in Syria,
Julius Caesar 13
officially made dictator in 47 B.C.E. and three years later was named dictator for life. CALENDAR, special military command in Gaul (modern France). had a military command in Spain. In 60 B.C.E., Caesar joined with Crassus and Pompey to form a coalition that historians call the First Triumvirate (triumvirate means "three-man rule"). Caesar refused to lay down his command and return as a private citizen to Rome, assassinated in 44BCE Octavian and Antony then divided the world and took over
The Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) 14
Also called the Golden age,high point of Latin literature, Octavian "the revered one" proclaimed the "restoration of the Republic", imperator (our word emperor), or commander in chief. dominating the Roman world for forty-five years. restoring traditional values. Political equality was a thing of the past;
the military unit that served as the personal bodyguard of the Roman emperors. Set up by Augustus 14
The Early Empire (14-180)
There was no serious opposition to Augustus's choice of his stepson Tiberius as his successor. Augustus established the Julio-Claudian dynasty;
(54-68) "What an artist the world is losing in me!" committed suicide, stabbed self in throat
The Five Good Emperors (96-180) 15
the five emperors who ruled from 96 to 180 (Nerva, Trajan 98-117, Hadrian(117-138), Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius), a period of peace and prosperity for the Roman Empire. treated the ruling classes with respect, maintained peace in the empire, and supported generally beneficial domestic policies. absolute monarchs, they were known for their tolerance and diplomacy.
"Roman peace." A term used to refer to the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the Mediterranean world and much of western Europe during the first and second centuries C.E.
Which of Trajan's acquisitions were relinquished during Hadrian's reign?
One of the notable characteristics of Roman culture and society is the impact of the Greeks. Greek ambassadors, merchants, and artists traveled to Rome and spread Greek thought and practices. After their conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms, Roman generals shipped Greek manuscripts and artworks back to Rome. Multitudes of educated Greek slaves labored in Roman households. Rich Romans hired Greek tutors and sent their sons to Athens to study. As the Roman poet Horace (HOR-uss) said, "Captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror." Greek thought captivated the less sophisticated Roman minds, and the Romans became willing transmitters of Greek culture. The Romans were also dependent on the Greeks for artistic inspiration 18. One of Rome's chief gifts to the Mediterranean world of its day and to later generations was its system of law 18.
a body of laws or specific principles held to be derived from nature and binding upon all human society even in the absence of positive laws. a set of universal laws based on reason.
the dominant male in a Roman family whose powers over his wife and children were theoretically unlimited, though they were sometimes circumvented in practice
especially those of the upper class, had more freedom than women in Classical Athens despite the persistent male belief that women required guardianship. This mural decoration, found in the remains of a villa destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, shows a group of Pompeian ladies with their slave hairdresser.
Cincinnatus Saves Rome
Cincinnatus Saves Rome: A Roman Morality Tale". I do believe Livy's story appears to be historically valid. Livy provided numerous stories which taught the Romans the virtues that had made Rome great. I believe his version of "Cincinnatus Saves Rome: A Roman Morality Tale" was not anything different, and that it was and example of accounts that happened before. This particular story tales of a dictator (Cincinnatus) who took total control for 15 days before defeating Aequi and returning back to his simple farming way of life. There is nothing in the writing that states that this is not possible although, the text I previously read discussed council of the plebs, the centuriate assembly, and the senate which were all controlled by groups, not an individual, I still believe Livy's story must have had some truth to it. The "common folk" were probably less pleased than the officials at seeing the Dictator because they were less fortunate or without wealth and therefore had no voice. They had no choice except to do as they were told (which was probably to fight) and I am sure many of the feared for their lives. According to the text, "they thought his power excessive and dreaded the way in which he was likely to use it". I believe their fears were very accurate and I believe their views twenty days later of him likely to have been in total awe, that someone from his walk of life and social status could have prevailed in something that was so likely to have been detrimental. The elements in this story that inspired later generations to hail Cincinnatus as "the noblest Roman of them all" were the fact the he took control only as long as necessary and relinquished his authority and returned to his family when his assignment was completed, also his awareness in knowing when, how, and where to attack to be victorious.
What reforms did Diocletian and Constantine institute 24
The political and military reforms, the army and the civil service—that drained most of the public funds. , the empire was transformed into a new state, the so-called Late Empire, distinguished by a new governmental structure, a rigid economic and social system, and a new state religion—Christianity (see "Transformation of the Roman World: The Development of Christianity).extended imperial control by strengthening and expanding the administrative bureaucracies of the Roman Empire.army was enlarged, construction of a new capital city in the east, on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the Bosporus.
Germanic barbarian leader who ended the western Roman Empire in 476 and became the first barbarian ruler of Italy (434-493)
During the reign of Marcus Aurelius,
growth of Christianity and its eventual adoption as the official religion of Rome.
Severan rulers (193-235) 24
Military monarchy , which restored order after a series of civil wars, was followed by military anarchy. Invasions, civil wars, and plague came close to causing an economic collapse of the Roman Empire in the third century. By the mid-third century, the state had to hire Germans to fight under Roman commanders.
What Caused The Fall Of The Western Roman Empire?
Lack of confidence in non Russians. There is corruption. Many people suffering.
tribes from the north attacked and burned the capital city
Roman Religion 26
The Roman state religion focused on the worship of a pantheon of Greco-Roman gods and goddesses, including Juno, the patron goddess of women; Minerva, the goddess of craftspeople; Mars, the god of war; and Jupiter Optimus Maximus (JOO-puh-tur AHP-tuh-muss MAK-suh-muss) ("best and greatest"), who became the patron deity of Rome and assumed a central place in the religious life of the city. The Romans believed that the observance of proper ritual by state priests brought them into a right relationship with the gods, thereby guaranteeing security, peace, and prosperity, and that their success in creating an empire confirmed that they enjoyed the favor of the gods. polytheistic Romans were extremely tolerant of other religions, emperors were often officially made gods by the Roman senate, thus bolstering support for the emperors
Qin Dynasty 32
The fall of the Qin dynasty in 206 B.C.E. was followed by a brief period of civil strife as aspiring successors competed for hegemony. The Han dynasty would later become so closely identified with the advance of Chinese civilization that even today the Chinese sometimes refer to themselves as "people of Han" and to their language as the "language of Han."
Han Dynasty 32
after the Qin Dynasty, The Han dynasty would later become so closely identified with the advance of Chinese civilization that even today the Chinese sometimes refer to themselves as "people of Han" and to their language as the "language of Han." The founder of the Han dynasty was Liu Bang (lyoo BAHNG) (Liu Pang), a commoner of peasant origin who would be known historically by his title of Han Gaozu (HAHN gow-DZOO) (Han Kao Tsu, or Exalted Emperor of Han; 202-195 B.C.E.)
State Confucianism 32
the integration of Confucian doctrine with Legalist practice under the Han dynasty in China, which became the basis of Chinese political thought until the modern era. , took a while to accomplish. In doing this, the Han rulers retained many of the Qin institutions. For example, they borrowed the tripartite division of the central government into civilian and military authorities and a censorate. The government was headed by a "grand council" including representatives from all three segments of government. The Han also retained the system of local government, dividing the empire into provinces and districts.
Finally, the Han sought to apply the Qin system of
civil service examination 32
an elaborate Chinese system of selecting bureaucrats on merit, first introduced in 165 C.E., developed by the Tang dynasty in the seventh century C.E. and refined under the Song dynasty; later adopted in Vietnam and with less success in Japan and Korea. It contributed to efficient government, upward mobility, and cultural uniformity.
The Economy 33
New technology contributed to the economic prosperity of the Han era. The Chinese made significant progress in such areas as textile manufacturing, water mills, and iron casting; skill at ironworking led to the production of steel a few centuries later. Paper was invented under the Han, and the development of the rudder and fore-and-aft rigging permitted ships to sail into the wind for the first time. Thus equipped, Chinese merchant ships carrying heavy cargoes could sail throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and into the Indian Ocean.
How did the expansion of Han rule to the west parallel the Silk Road? 34
Many soldiers returned to ruined farms and the rich and powerful took over those lands. Tiberius Gracchus tried to institute reform that would dispurse land to the poor. Tiberius and hos brother were assassinated. The Jugurthine WAar 11 BCE challenged the senate's power/ Marius later introduced inovations which made the army more loyal to him
Social Changes 37
Under the Han dynasty, Chinese social institutions evolved into more complex forms than had been the case in past eras. The emergence of a free peasantry resulted in a strengthening of the nuclear family, which now became the prevailing social unit throughout the countryside, although the joint family—the linear descendant of the clan system in the Zhou dynasty—continued to hold sway in much of the countryside. The vast majority of Chinese continued to live in rural areas, but the number of cities, mainly at the junction of rivers and trade routes, was on the increase. The largest was the imperial capital of Chang'an (CHENG-AHN), which was one of the great cities of the ancient world, rivaling Rome in magnificence. T
Religion and Culture
he Han dynasty's adoption of Confucianism as the official philosophy of the state did not have much direct impact on the religious beliefs of the Chinese people. The pantheon of popular religion was still peopled by local deities and nature spirits, some connected with popular Daoism. Sometime in the first century C.E., however, a new salvationist faith appeared on the horizon. Merchants from Central Asia carrying their wares over the Silk Road brought the Buddhist faith to China for the first time. At first, its influence was limited, as no Buddhist text was translated into Chinese from the original Sanskrit until the fifth century C.E. But the terrain was ripe for the introduction of a new religion into China, and the first Chinese monks departed for India shortly after the end of the Han dynasty.
The Decline and Fall of the Han
206 B.C.E. Overthrow of Qin dynasty
202 B.C.E. Formation of Han dynasty
141-87 B.C.E. Reign of Emperor Wudi
138 B.C.E. Zhang Qian's mission to Central Asia
Second century B.C.E. First silk goods arrive in Europe
9-23 C.E. Wang Mang interregnum
First century C.E. First Buddhist merchants arrive in China
221 C.E. Collapse of Han dynasty
Han Dynasty 38
In the early third century C.E., the dynasty was finally brought to an end when power was seized by Cao Cao (TSOW tsow) (Ts'ao Ts'ao), a general known to later generations as one of the main characters in the famous Chinese epic The Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
Rome and China similarities 39
dominated large areas of the world. Both lasted for centuries, and both were extremely successful in establishing centralized control. Both built elaborate systems of roads in order to rule efficiently and relied on provincial officials, and especially on town and cities, for local administration. settled conditions led to a high level of agricultural production that sustained large populations, managed to extend their legal and political institutions, their technical skills, and their languages throughout their empires. similar social and economic structures. The family stood at the heart of the social structure, and the male head of the family was all-powerful. The family values —duty, courage, obedience, and discipline. wealth of both societies also depended on agriculture. wealthy landowners were able to gradually convert the free peasants into tenant farmers and thereby ultimately to undermine the power of the imperial governments.
Rome and China differences 39
here were also significant differences. Merchants were more highly regarded and allowed more freedom in Rome than they were in China. there was less social mobility in China than in Rome, and many Chinese peasants spent their entire lives without venturing far beyond their village gate. Chinese imperial authority was far more stable. Chinese rulers could easily pass on their authority to other family members. accession to the Roman imperial throne depended less on solid dynastic principles and more on pure military force.
Both empires were periodically beset by invasions of nomadic peoples: the Han dynasty was weakened by the incursions of the Xiongnu, and the Western Roman Empire eventually collapsed in the face of incursions by the Germanic peoples. the Chinese imperial tradition, along with the class structure and set of values that sustained that tradition, survived, and the Chinese Empire, under new dynasties, continued into the twentieth century as a single political entity.
The chief executive officers of the Roman Republic who were responsible for leading the Roman army into battle and administering the government were the
In reaction to the overwhelming influence of Greek philosophy, the Romans turned to Etruscan and Egyptian models for inspiration in artistic matters.
Which of the following languages is NOT a Romance language?
Julius Caesar's adopted son Octavian later changed his name to
The success of Christianity is widely believed by historians to have been due to its
promise of salvation, its familiarity, and its universality.
During the centuries of Roman history, from Republic to Empire, the paterfamilias' authority
The founder of the Han dynasty was
Which of the following is not associated with the Han dynasty?
Women ceased to play a secondary role.
The Edict of Milan (313 C.E.) was an attempt to outlaw Christianity and bring back the worship of the old Roman gods.
The primary importance of roads in both the Roman and Han empires centered on
was assassinated by a group of leading senators.
The movie "Gladiator" directed by Ridley Scott illustrates that movies about ancient Rome
can revive interest in Roman history.
Roman imperialism was characterized by
diplomacy, strategic fortifications, road construction, and allied military support.
Both the Qin and the Han dynasties had problems with the nomadic Xiongnu from Central Asia.
Crassus was killed in battle, Caesar defeated Pompey and was later assassinated, Octavian defeated Antony, who committed suicide, and Octavian attained sole power and was named Augustus. As a result of the preceding, the traditional Roman Republic
Both the Greeks and the ____ had a major influence on the development of Rome.
The Third Punic War
resulted in Carthage being destroyed and its territory becoming a Roman province.
The Romans became masters of the Mediterranean Sea by conquering the
Prior to 133 BCE, the only credible rivals for Roman power in the Western Mediterranean region were the
A central aspect of early Roman conquest was that all conquered peoples
had an interest in the success of Rome, since they could improve their status by demonstrating their loyalty to their conquerors.
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