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154 terms

History Final

STUDY
PLAY
According to the theory of _______________, a nation could increase its wealth and power by obtaining as much gold and silver as possible, and by establishing a favorable _________________, in which it sold more goods than it bought
Mercantilism, Balance of Trade
Beginning in 1651, England's _________________, the country's legislative body, moved to tighten control of colonial trade by passing a series of measures known as the _________________
Parliament, Navigation Acts
Seeking to make colonial government more obedient, King James II disbanded the local assemblies of the northern colonies, united the area from southern Maine to New Jersey under the _________________, and chose _________________ to rule it
Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros
In the years after the _________________ of 1688, England turned its attention away from the colonies, adopting an overall colonial policy that became known as _____________________
Glorious Revolution, Salutary Neglect
After the overthrow of James II, a series of laws was passed by _________________ that disbanded the _________________ and returned the colonies to their previous status
Parliament, Dominion of New England
A cash crop is one that is raised primarily for:
Sale
All of the following were reasons why Southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans on their plantations except:
Enslaved Africans were very inexpensive to purchase
The "triangular trade" could best be described as a network of trade routes connecting _________________
The Colonies, West Indies, England, Europe, and Africa
What cargo was carried on what is known as the middle passage of the triangular trade?
Enslaved People
The Stono Rebellion was led by:
African Slaves
All of the following were causes of the Salem Witchcraft Trials EXCEPT for
The spread of Enlightenment ideals
Enlightenment thinkers stressed all of the following EXCEPT
The unpredictability of nature
Which of the following was "awakened during the Great Awakening?
Religious Belief
Benjamin Franklin was an important figure in the _________________
Enlightenment
Jonathan Edwards was an important figure in the _________________
Great Awakening
This banned all settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
Proclamation of 1763
Britain intended this to prevent further costly conflicts with Native Americans
Proclamation of 1763
This was intended to crack down on smuggling and to raise money to pay off the war debt
Sugar Act
This ambitious 22-year-old colonel was defeated at Fort Necessity in the opening battle of the French and Indian War
George Washington
This general search warrant allowed British customs officials to search any colonial ship or building they believed to be holding smuggled goods
Writs of Assistance
This financial expert was chosen by King George III to serve as Prime Minister in the hope that he could solve the financial problems caused by the French and Indian War
George Grenville
This reinforced the policy that smuggling trials were to be held at vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts
Sugar Act
Although he captured eight British forts in the Ohio River Valley, he was forced to negotiate when his troops were severely weakened by disease
Pontiac
Under his leadership the British army finally began winning battles in the French and Indian War, and the Iroquois agreed to support Britain
William Pitt
A republic is a government in which
Citizens rule through their elected representatives
Republicanism is the idea that
Governments should be based on the consent of the people
A confederation is
An alliance
A tariff is a tax on
Imported goods
The Land Ordinance of 1785 was
A law establishing a plan for surveying western lands
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Established procedures for western lands to become territories and, eventually, states
The Judiciary Act of 1789
Appointed the first Chief Justice
Washington's cabinet included the Department of
Commerce
Alexander Hamilton
Opposed the Establishment of a national bank
The Bank of the United States
Passed a protective tariff on goods produced in Europe
The Republican Party of the late 1700s
Supported a strong central government
An Excise Tax
Was an import tax placed on goods produced in Europe
Who improved on an earlier device and created the telegraph?
Samuel F.B. Morse
who invented the steel plow?
john deere
who invented the mechanical reaper?
cyrus mccormick
which invention sliced through heavy soil much more easily than existing tools
steel plow
what is it called when a farmer raises only one or two crops for sale
specialization
what invention carried messages. tapped in code, across copper wire
telegraph
what is the economic system in which private corporations and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profits
capitalism
what word comes from the french word meaning to undertake
entrepreneur
which invention allowed goods to be transported upriver, against the current
steamboat
what occurred in the early 19th century and changed the way people acquired the goods they needed
market revolution
industrialization in the early 19th century led to all of the following except
greater self-sufficiency
during the 1840, the advantage that canals had over railroads was that shipping by canal was
cheaper
the name of a man killed by an anti-Mornmom mob in 1844 is
joseph smith
fifty-four forty or fight referred to a boundary dispute between the United States and
great britain
under mexican rule, the main appeal texas held for american settlers was
cheap land
of the following, the man most in favor of seizing land from mexico was
james polk
within the united states, conflicts over what delayed the annexation of texas
the balance of free and slave states
which of the following present-day states was not ceded to the united states in the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
texas
the final borders of the lower 48 states were established in the
gadsden purchase
as more settlers moved west, what happened to the area called the MIDDLE GROUND
it also moved west
which event was most responsible for creating a diverse population in california
the gold rush
which group played a major role in the settling of the american west
mormons
what does the slogan FIFTY FOUR FORTY OR FIGHT refer to
the northern boundary of the oregon territory
in the early years of canal and railroad travel, what advantage did railroads offer
speed
which of the following improved during the first half of the 19th century
the standard of living for the average american
who were the empresarios of texas
land agents
what was the most important impact of the canal building era
it opened the midwest to world markets
the inventor of a new rubber product that didnt freeze or melt was
charles goodyear
the idea that america had a God-given right to expand across the continent was expressed by the phrase _______________
manifest destiny
the treaty of fort laramie, in which the u.s. government gave control of a large part of the plains to native americans in exchange for peaceful relationships with settlers, was repeatedly violated by the ______________
U.S.
the ______________ extended from independence, missouri to portland, oregon
oregon trail
the mormon migration to utah was led by ____________
brigham young
the mormon's main reason for moving west was a desire for ______________
religious freedom
for which action is nat turner well known
leading a violent slave revolt
what did the abolition movement promote
ending the institution of slavery
what belief was one important feature of the second great awakening
a belief in personal responsibility for salvation
what term refers to the 19th century belief that married women's activities shold be limited to housework and family
the cult of domesticity
which of the following did frederick douglass not do
emigrate to africa
which of the following was not a problem faced by mill girls in massachusetts
lack of safe places to stay
in which philosophical movement was ralph waldo emerson a leader
transcendentalism
this person helped launch the second great awakening
charles grandison finney
this became a political, cultural, and social center for its members
african methodist episcopal church
this person represented a philosophical movement that emphasized self-reliance, truth in nature, and personal imagination
ralph waldo emerson
this reformer focused on the mentally ill
dorothea dix
this prevented congress from hearing abolitionist petitions to end slavery
gag rule
this former slave, who changed her name, spoke for abolition and women's rights
sojourner truth
this free black advised african americans to fight for freedom rather than wait for slave owners to end slavery
david walker
this former slave published THE NORTH STAR and worked to end slavery through political means
frederick douglass
this person, along with lucretia mott, organized the first women's rights convention at seneca falls, new york
elizabeth cady scanton
the second great awakening centered on the belief that a person's salvation depended on
his or her own efforts
unlike revivalism, Unitarianism emphasized
reason and conscience
one result of nat turners rebellion was
the tightening of laws controlling african american slaves
as an abolitionist, frederick douglass favored
political action to end slavery
at the seneca falls convention, a resolution that women should receive the right to vote was
only narrowly approved
the temperance movement recognized
the destructive effects of drunkenness on family life
the second great awakening was similar to jacksonian democracy in its emphasis on
the power of the average citizen
the industrial revolution in the united states involved all of the following except
a steadily growing slave trade in the south
eli whitney is best known for his invention of the
cotton gin
henry clay proposed the american system for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
to bring an end to slavery
the main purpose of the tariff of 1816 was to
aid american industry
all of the following are true of the erie canal EXCEPT that it
was primarily intended to transport PASSENGERS
the supreme court decision in muculloch v. maryland
strengthened the federal government's control over the economy
john quincy adams
helped to expand u.s. territory to include florida
the monroe doctrine
warned european powers not to interfere with the affairs of the western hemisphere
nationalism
is a belief in placing national interests above regional concerns
the missouri compromise
maintained the balnace of slave states and free states
andrew jackson and nicholas biddle fought over
the tariff of abominations
in 1840, they ran william henry harrison as their candidate for president and won against martin van buren
whigs
from the south's point of view, this was making the north rich at the south's expense
bank of the u.s.
elected president in 1836, he inherited the problems created by jackson's economic policies
martin van buren
this championed states' rights and questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in the states
nullification theory
in a series of famous debates against senator robert hayne, he defended the tariff and attacked states' rights
daniel webster
this allowed the federal government to use the military against south carolina if state authorities resisted paying proper duties
force bill
this president was referred to as "his accidency" since he came to power through the unexpected death of president harrison
john tyler
he was the vice-president from south carolina whose famous toast included the phrase "the union, next to our liberty, the most dear"
john c calhoun
who benefited from andrew jackson's spoils system
south and west farmers
which native american group walked the trail of tears
cherokee
what act of congress eventually led to the trail of tears
indian removal act
what was the result of the trail of tears
1/4 cherokees died (ANGRY INDIANS)
in whose favor did the supreme court rule in worcester v. georgia
native americans (worcester)
what was andrew jackson's response to the ruling in worcester v. georgia
he ignored it
the first successful steamboat was designed and built by
robert fuller
the policy by which a newly elected president replaces high-ranking members of the executive branch with his own appointees is known as
spoils system
the trail of tears refers to the forced relocation of the cherokee to new lands in __________________
oklahoma
as part of the missouri compromise ___________ was admitted to the union as a free state
maine
in 1832, ________ declared a series of tariffs unconstitutional and threatened to secede from the union
south carolina
jackson's first vice president __________ publicly disagreed with him on the subject of states' rights
john c calhoun
andrew jackson believed that ___________ symbolized eastern wealth and threatened american democracy
bank of the united states
the theory of nullification raised the question of how to divide power between ____________
state and federal governments
the _____________ was aimed, in part, at prventing russia from establishing colonies in california
Monroe Doctrine
the erie canal connected the atlantic ocean to __________
the great lakes
according to the theory of mercantilism, a country has a favorable balance of trade when
the value of exports is greater than the value of imports
the purpose of the navigation acts was to
restrict colonial trade
as a result of england's policy of SALUTARY NEGLECT, the colonies developed
a desire for self-government
in the late 1600s, the number of enslaved africans in the south increased dramatically in part due to a decline in
the availability of indentured servants from europe
in 1765, colonists react with rage and well-organized resistance to the ______________, a package of revenue laws imposing taxes on imports of glass, lead paint, paper, and tea
townshend acts
the MIDDLE PASSAGE refers to the part of the transatlantic trade network that carried
africans from africa to the west indies and north america
the enlightenment was a movement that emphasized the value of
reason
the great awakening caused some colonists to
abandon their puritan and anglican congregations
during the french and indian war, native americans fought on the side of
both the british and the french
with the proclamation of 1763, the british government attempted to
stop settlement west of the appalachans
the sugar act was an effort by the british parliament to
reduce colonial smuggling
the _________ was a slave uprising begun by about twenty slaves near charleston, south carolina
stono rebellion
unlike enslaved persons in the south, those in new england could
bring a lawsuit in court
the main cargo sent to north america via the _____________ was slaves
middle passage
indigo is an example of a ______________, one that is grown primarily for sale rather than for the farmer's own use
cash crop
jonathan edwards was a key figure during the ____________________, a time when preachers sought to bring people back to religion
great awakening
in the french and indian war, british troops were eventually aided by the _______________, who helped them win the war
iroquois
britains parliament passed the _____________ in 1764 to try to stop the colonies from smuggling non-british goods into the country
sugar act
under the policy of _____________, england relaxed its enforcement of trade regulations in the colonies in return for their continued economic loyalty
salutary neglect
the goal of the _________________ was to ban all settlement west of the appalachians
proclamation of 1763
native american leader _____________ led an uprising in the ohio river valley in response to the growing number of settlers entering the area
pontiac
from the time of the declaration of independence until the ratification of the constitution, the u.s. function without
a president
one of the accomplishments of northwest ordinance of 1787 was to
establish requirements for admitting new states to the union
shay's rebellion was a protest by farmers who faced problems from
debts they owed to creditors
the great compromise was an agreement about how to
determine a state's representation in congress
the system that maintains the separation of powers among the branches of the federal government is called
checks and balances
all of the following men wrote letters contained in the federalist except
james madison