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CLEP Introductory Psychology Vocab
Terms in this set (119)
drug that mimics a particular neurotransmitter or makes more of it available by blocking its reuptake. creates more. chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response
neuron pumps out the sodium ions and can then fire again
neurotransmitter affecting arousal and sleep
relating to the way that living things function, rather than to their shape or structure
of, affecting, or arising in the mind; related to the mental and emotional state of a person:
___ nervous system: carries information from muscles, sense organ, skin to CNS allowing sensations of pressure, pain and temperature. 2. carries messages from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles allowing for voluntary movement
___ nervous system: includes sensory & motor neurons connecting brain and spine to rest of body
area of psychology addressing sensation - levels of intensity, how sensitive we are & how psychological factors influence our ability to sense stimuli
one object partially blocks out another and we perceive it as closer
drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants
_ learning - repeated presentation of a single stimulus produces enduring change in behavior (habituation, sensitization) . does not require linking or associating stimuli together. It is considered the simplest type of learning
is an increase in behavior due to exposure to a noxious (painful) stimulus
is a decrease in behavior due to repeated exposure to an innocuous stimulus . type of non-associative learning that occurs when repeated presentations of a stimulus eventually reduce responses to that stimulus.
study of dreams
"Interpretation of Dreams" (book)
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms.
inability to see new uses for familiar objects
child speaking 1 word at a time accompanies it with gestures to convey additional meaning
norms based referencing
comparison between test taker's score and the average score for others of his age (standardization)
psychological process that energizes and directs behavior
brain - monitors huger signals (ventromedial h - stopping hunger) (lateral h - increasing hunger)
weight our body works to maintain
become hungry with cues like smelling food or what time of day it is
rely on body cues to decide when to eat
The analysis of the meaning of language, especially of individual words.
words or parts of words that convey meaning.
smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-
rules for combining morphemes in meaningful ways
hypotheses stating facial muscles tell us whether we are happy or not
when levels of arousal are increased through exercise, or other means = more angry when insulted than others
sacs within the axon terminal
chemical molecule contained in vesicles within the axon terminal
knoblike end of the axon
group of people born during the same period of time
age + cohort = can't determine which makes the difference
studies solving the confounding problem - tracking the behavior of a single cohort over a long period of time.
study with people of different ages (cross sectional) followed over a long period of time (longitudinal)
takes more drugs for the same effect because the body adapts
false sensations including hearing voices not there or seeing objects not existing
false thought (believe you're someone famous)
senselessly repeating back words someone else has just said
repeating other people's movement
Freudian slips - say what you really mean, but didn't mean to say
expressions toward therapist indicating feelings linked to earlier relationships - psychoanalysis cue to repressing
paraphrasing client says, ask for clarification and elaboration and reflecting the client's feelings - Humanistic approach psychological therapies (Carl Rogers)
___ psychology. how behavior of individuals is influenced by others
___ social influence: pressure to comply with norm (even obviously wrong) comes from concern about being rejected by group
___ social influence: what other people do provides information about how to behave
test retest reliability
consistency of scores across administrations of the test. If taking test more than once do people get about the same score the 2nd time?
how well does the test correlate with itself
split half reliability
for each taker, score is generated for alf test, then again for other half. a correlation coefficient is compter across the two sets of scores. Reliability of a test can be calculated as the average for ever possible way of splitting the test in half (Cronbach's alpha)
__ validity (or content validity) refers to whether the test looks as though it's measuring what it's supposed to
__ validity refers to how well scores on the test predict actual behavior of the type the test is supposed to measure
__ validity refers to whether scores on the questionnaire are related in expected ways (+ -) to scores on other questionnaires
tests given to large number of people with some known characteristics (age, sex, race) to compare scores
sample's scores on your measures can be described precisely (mean, median, mode)
index of how widely scattered scores tend to be around the mean
statistics = make inference about populations based on characteristics of sample
relationship wasn't likely to have happened by chance
Male sex hormones. Testosterone
adrenocorticotrophic hormone; stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids; regulated by releasing hormone corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
bridges left and right hemisphere; pathway of white matter
Acquired knowledge, including the person's repertoire of verbal knowledge and cognitive skills
___ thinking = creativity (Guilford)
__ imagery. describes a type of visual memory that is retained for a long time; photographic
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts.
fixed action pattern
A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated.
anxiety is transformed into physical symptoms (such as heart palpitations, paralysis, or blindness) that resolves the conflict (parents fight, child becomes deaf)
Change in Membrane Potential. If the sum of graded potentials is greater than depolarization threshold, an action potential occurs. Only occurs in dendrites and soma.. excitation & inhibition @ synapse
When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a(n) ________.
Local change in resting potential of receptor cell that mediates between impact of stimuli and initiation of nerve impulses.
A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus
islets of langerhans
Contains endocrine cells within pancreas
hammer; first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
organ of corti
Center part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes
three tiny bones in the middle ear
In a language, the smallest meaningful unit (word/part of word) that carries meaning; suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-
In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning of new information
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence
When experience hinders learning in a new situation
Sensory receptors, located in the muscles and joints, that provide information about body position and movement. Pacinian corpuscles, muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, semicircular canals, utricles, saccules
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; a slight hyperpolarization of the postysynaptic cell, moving the membrane potential of that cell further from threshold.
unlimited and permanent storehouse for our memories.
(working memory) holds information in the mind long enough to solve problems. The capacity of this memory was determined by George Miller who discovered that the maximum amount of material it can hold at any one time is seven plus or minus two items.
first stage in the memory process - involves the fleeting awareness of whatever the senses have detected.
___ variable = "cause" in the hypothesis
___ variable = "effect" in the hypothesis is. typically involves measuring how subjects behave
representative subset of people that are actually chosen to participate in the study. If it's not possible to test all adults, chose a group that fairly represented the greater population.
Drugs that block a neurotransmitter's receptor sites or inhibit its release
unpleasant state of tension produced when you behave in a way that is inconsistent with your attitudes.
The kin-selection hypothesis is one explanation. we feel obligated to help those who have helped us
what happens when we are exposed to an unchanging stimulus resulting in a reduction in sensitivity
____ ___ is a specific time, typically early in development, during which exposure to appropriate stimuli is required in order for certain perceptual abilities to develop.
A _____ ___ refers to a predisposition to interpret an event or stimulus in a particular way, based on beliefs, emotions, or previous experiences.
observer attributes others behavior as dispositional (personality), but own behavior (as the actor) to the situation (overtired). This is due, at least in part, to the actor being more aware than others are of how his or her behavior changes from one situation to another.
fundamental attribution error
explains only the behavior of others (not self). correspondence bias or attribution effect, is the tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics (personality) to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation rather than considering the situation's external factors
(internal) explains behavior according to personality, such as assuming Jessica's erratic driving is because she is a bad driver.
(external) explains behavior according to experience or the environment, such as explaining that Beau's erratic driving is caused by being overtired
Response cost training
another term for punishment
renamed operant conditioning by BF Skinner
converting one form of energy (light waves) into another form of energy (nerve impulses). process where stimulus energy ic converted into neural messages
__ principle happiness depends on doing better than we think other people are doing
___ phenomenon reduction in happiness as one habituates to some consistent level of desirable stimulus (wealth, etc)
individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people "we've got something for everyone" (astrology, etc)
social factor, personality and one's own behavior can interact to determine future behavior
developing a liking for someone because you see them often
perform better when people are grouped
don't work as hard when in a group
extreme attitudes develop during discussions in a group
Gestalt perception - form of perceptual constancy where a familiar object keeps its perceived shape despite major changes in retinal stimulation due to changes in its orientation. (i.e. plate - even if viewed from the side
Gestalt perception - tendency to fill in gaps in figures and to see incomplete figures as complete
Gestalt perception -
We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.
sensory stimulation made meaningful
perception: object perceived as a figure while the surroundings are the ground
respond to changes because of relationship between stimuli & response (stim + stim or stim + behavior) can be reflexive or classical
people remember middle of list less well than they remember the first and last words
reduce responding after reinforcement ends to below level prior to reinforcement (Behavioral Psy don't like this)
learn to respond to one stimuli and not another
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