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AP Biology Review - Ecology part 3

This is a study guide under the subject of Ecology [Coevolution and Ecological Succesion] for the AP Biology Test. Good luck! Pt. 3 Pt. 2 is located here: http://quizlet.com/863193/ap-biology-review-ecology-part-2-flash-cards/ ------ Pt. 4 is located here: http://quizlet.com/883172/ap-biology-review-ecology-part-4-flash-cards/
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Terms in this set (...)

Coevolution
Evolution of one species in response to new adaptations that appear in another species
Secondary Compound
Toxic chemicals produced in plants that discourage would-be herbivores
Camouflage (cryptic coloration)
Any color, pattern, shape, or behavior that enables an animal to blend in with its surroundings
Aposematic coloration (warning coloration)
Conspicuous pattern or coloration of animals that warns predators that they sting, bite, taste bad, or are otherwise to be avoided.
Mimicry
When two or more species resmble one another in appearance
Mullerian mimicry
Mimicry that occurs when several animals, with a special defense mechanism, share the same coloration.
Batesian Mimicry
Mimicry that occurs when an animal without any special defense mechanism mimics the coloration of an animal that does possess a defense.
Ecological Succession
The change in the composition of species over time
Climax Community
Final successional stage of constant species composition [destroyed only by catastrophic events]
Ecological Succession may occur as a result of
Substrate Texture, Soil pH, Soil Water Potential, Light Availability, and Crowding.
Pioneer Species
Plants and animals that are first to colonize a newly exposed habitat. [Opportunistic, r-selected species that have good dispersal capability]
Primary Succession
Type of Succession that occurs on substrates that never previously supported living things. [IE volcanic islands or glaciers]
Secondary Succession
Type of Succession that occurs where communities were entirely or partially destroyed by some kind of damaging event [IE floods or fire]
Trophic Levels
Organization of plants and animals in order to examine the production and utilization of energy
Primary Producers
Autotrophs that convert sun energy into chemical energy [IE plants or cyanobacteria]
Primary Consumers
Herbivores, [eat the primary producers]
Secondary Consumers
Primary Carnivores [eat the primary consumers]
Tertiary Consumers
Secondary Carnivores [eat the secondary consumers]
Detritivores
Consumers that obtain energy by consuming dead plants and animals.
Decomposer
Smallest detritivores [Fungi or Bacteria]
Ecological Pyramids
Illustrations used to show the relationship between trophic levels.
Ecological Efficiency
Describes the proportion of energy represented at one trophic level that is transferred to the next level. [how much energy moves from one organism to another]
Food chain
Linear flow chart of who eats whom. [grass->zebra->lion->vulture]
Food web
Expanded, more complete version of a food chain that shows all of the major plants in the ecosystem, the various animals that eat them, and the animals that eat other animals.