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a violation of a criminal law


A state or federal confinement facility that has a custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement


a serious criminal offense; specifically, one punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for more than a year


a relatively minor ciolation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple assault, punishable by confinement for one year or less


a minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty, but not incarceration, or by a specified, usually very short term of incarceration

correctional clients

prison inmates, probationers, parolees, offenders assigned to alternative sentencing programs, and those held in jails

criminal justice

the process of achieving justice through the application of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal justice system.

criminal justice system

the collection of all the agencies that perform criminal justice functions, whether these are operations or administration or technical support. Basic cjs are police, courts, and corrections


the process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case


an appearance in court prior to trial in a criminal proceeding

nolo contendre

a plea of no contest.

institutional corrections

the aspect of the correctional enterprise that "involves the incarceration and rehabilitation of adults and juveniles convicted of offenses against the law, and the confinement against the law, and the confinement of persons suspected of a crime awaiting trial and adjudication

noninstitutional corrections

that aspect of the correctional enterprise that includes pardon probation and parole activities, correctional administration not directly connectable to institutions and miscellaneous activities not directly related to institutional care


all the various aspects of the pretrial and postconviction management of individuals accused or convicted of crimes


cultural restrictions on behavior that forbid serious violations such as murder rape and robbery


time honored ways of doing things. although they carry the force of tradition, their violation is unlikely to threaten the survival of the social group.

criminal law

that portion of the law that defines crimes and specifies criminal punishments


an occupation granted high social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its members

corrections professional

a dedicated person of high moral character and personal integrity who is employed in the field of corrections and takes professionalism to heart.

professional associations

organized groups of like-minded individuals who work to enhance teh professional status of members of their occupational group


a credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development assessment, through which the skills, knowledge, and abilities of correctional personnel can be formally recognized

evidence based corrections

the application of social scientific techniques to study of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of availible resources


social practices that explicity or implicity attribute merits or allocate value to individuals solely because of their race

corporal punishment

physical punishments, or those involving the body


a workhouse. the word came from the name of the first workhouse in England


the principle that the higherst objective of public policy is the greatest happiness for the largest number of people

hedonistic calculus

the idea that people are motivated by pleasure and pain and that the proper amount of punishment can deter crime


the imposition of a criminal sanction by a sentencing authority, such as a judge


the penalty a court imposes on a person convcted of a crime

social order

the smooth functioning of social institutions. the existence of positive and productive relations among individual members of society, and the orderly functioning of society as a whole


punishment as vengeance. An emotional response to real or imagined injury or insult.


a sentencing goal that involves retaliation against a criminal perpetrator

just deserts

punishment deserved. a just deserts perspective on criminal sentencing holds that criminal offenders are morally blame-worthy and are therefore deserving of punishment


the discouragement or prevention of crimes through the fear of punishment

specific deterrence

the detterence of the individual being punished from committing additional crimes

general deterence

the use of the example of individual punishment to dissuade others from committing crimes

pleasure-pain principle

the idea that actions are motivated primarily by a desire to experience pleasure and avoid pain


the use of imprionment or other means to reduce an offender's capability to commit future offenses

correctional econometrics

the study of the cost-effectiveness of various correctional programs and related reductions in the incidence of crime


the changing of criminal lifestyles into law-abiding ones by correcting the behavior of offenders through treatment, education, and training.


the process of making the offender a productive member of the community


the process of returning to their previous condition all those involved in or affected by crime-including victims, offenders, and society

restorative justice

a systematic response to wrongdoing that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders, and communities caused or revealed by crime

victim-impact statement

a description of the harm and suffering that a crime has caused victims and survivors


payments made by a criminal to the victim as compensation for the harm caused by the offense

mandatory sentences

those that are required by law under certain circumstances, such as conviction of specified crime or of a series of offenses of a specified type

presentence report

a report, prepared by the probation department of a court, that provides a social and personal history as well as an evaluation of a defendant as an aid to the court in determining a sentence

consecutive sentences

sentences served one after the other

concurrent sentences

sentences served together

model of criminal sentencing

a strategy or system for imposing criminal sanctions

flat sentences

those that specify a given amount of time to be served in custody and allow little or no variation from the time specified.

indeterminate sentencing

a sentence in which a judge specifies a maximum length and a minimum length, and an administrative agency, generally a parole board, determines the actual time of release

good time

the number of days or months prison authorities deduct from a sentence fo good behavior and for other reasons

determinate sentence

a sentence of a fixed term of incarceration, which can be reduced by good time

sentencing commission

a group assigned to create a schedule of sentences that reflect the gravity of the offenses committed and the prior record of the criminal offender

sentencing enhancements

legislatively approved provisions that mandate longer prisoner terms for specific criminal offenses committed under certain cercumstances

mandatory minimum sentencing

the imposition of sentences required by statute for those convicted of a particular crime or a particular crime with special circumstances

habitual offender statute

a law that allows a person's criminal history to be considered at sentencing

fair sentencing

sentencing practices that incorporate fairness for both victims and offenders.


the sentencing principle that the severity of punishment should match the seriousness of the crime for which the sentence is imposed


the sentencing principle that similar crimes and similar criminals should be treated alike.

social debt

the sentencing principle that the severity of punishment should take into account the offender's prior criminal behavior

truth in sentencing

the sentencing principle that requires an offender to serve a substantial portion of the sentence and reduces the discrepancy between the sentence imposed and actual time spent in prison

William Penn

Founder of Pennsylvania, and he was a quaker. Got rid of Death PEnalty for everything but murder

Jeremy Bentham

Hedonistic Calculus! Advocated utlitarinism, and he followed Ceasare Beccaria. He also invented the Panopticon, which is a prison in which the guards can see all the prisoners.

Cesare Beccaria

He also believed in Hedonistic Calculus,and he also believed that punishment should fit the crime. He supported and or created classical criminology. He was also a utilitarinist.

Sir Robert Peel

Father of modern police. His workers were called bobbies. PUnishment should not be imposed by police but by specialists in the field of Penelogy. Idetentified the fundamental functions of policing as investigation of crime and the aprehension of criminals.

Sanford Bates

first director of Federal Bureau of prisons. He believed in rehab and the value of Prison labor. Prison is an artificial environment in which everything is done by clock work, then they are release at the end of their sentence.

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