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68 terms

Intro to Corrections test 1

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crime
a violation of a criminal law
prison
A state or federal confinement facility that has a custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement
felony
a serious criminal offense; specifically, one punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for more than a year
misdemeanor
a relatively minor ciolation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple assault, punishable by confinement for one year or less
infraction
a minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty, but not incarceration, or by a specified, usually very short term of incarceration
correctional clients
prison inmates, probationers, parolees, offenders assigned to alternative sentencing programs, and those held in jails
criminal justice
the process of achieving justice through the application of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal justice system.
criminal justice system
the collection of all the agencies that perform criminal justice functions, whether these are operations or administration or technical support. Basic cjs are police, courts, and corrections
adjudication
the process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case
arraignment
an appearance in court prior to trial in a criminal proceeding
nolo contendre
a plea of no contest.
institutional corrections
the aspect of the correctional enterprise that "involves the incarceration and rehabilitation of adults and juveniles convicted of offenses against the law, and the confinement against the law, and the confinement of persons suspected of a crime awaiting trial and adjudication
noninstitutional corrections
that aspect of the correctional enterprise that includes pardon probation and parole activities, correctional administration not directly connectable to institutions and miscellaneous activities not directly related to institutional care
corrections
all the various aspects of the pretrial and postconviction management of individuals accused or convicted of crimes
mores
cultural restrictions on behavior that forbid serious violations such as murder rape and robbery
folkways
time honored ways of doing things. although they carry the force of tradition, their violation is unlikely to threaten the survival of the social group.
criminal law
that portion of the law that defines crimes and specifies criminal punishments
profession
an occupation granted high social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its members
corrections professional
a dedicated person of high moral character and personal integrity who is employed in the field of corrections and takes professionalism to heart.
professional associations
organized groups of like-minded individuals who work to enhance teh professional status of members of their occupational group
certification
a credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development assessment, through which the skills, knowledge, and abilities of correctional personnel can be formally recognized
evidence based corrections
the application of social scientific techniques to study of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of availible resources
racism
social practices that explicity or implicity attribute merits or allocate value to individuals solely because of their race
corporal punishment
physical punishments, or those involving the body
bridewell
a workhouse. the word came from the name of the first workhouse in England
utilitarianism
the principle that the higherst objective of public policy is the greatest happiness for the largest number of people
hedonistic calculus
the idea that people are motivated by pleasure and pain and that the proper amount of punishment can deter crime
sentencing
the imposition of a criminal sanction by a sentencing authority, such as a judge
sentence
the penalty a court imposes on a person convcted of a crime
social order
the smooth functioning of social institutions. the existence of positive and productive relations among individual members of society, and the orderly functioning of society as a whole
revenge
punishment as vengeance. An emotional response to real or imagined injury or insult.
retribution
a sentencing goal that involves retaliation against a criminal perpetrator
just deserts
punishment deserved. a just deserts perspective on criminal sentencing holds that criminal offenders are morally blame-worthy and are therefore deserving of punishment
deterrence
the discouragement or prevention of crimes through the fear of punishment
specific deterrence
the detterence of the individual being punished from committing additional crimes
general deterence
the use of the example of individual punishment to dissuade others from committing crimes
pleasure-pain principle
the idea that actions are motivated primarily by a desire to experience pleasure and avoid pain
incapacitation
the use of imprionment or other means to reduce an offender's capability to commit future offenses
correctional econometrics
the study of the cost-effectiveness of various correctional programs and related reductions in the incidence of crime
rehabilitation
the changing of criminal lifestyles into law-abiding ones by correcting the behavior of offenders through treatment, education, and training.
reintegration
the process of making the offender a productive member of the community
restoration
the process of returning to their previous condition all those involved in or affected by crime-including victims, offenders, and society
restorative justice
a systematic response to wrongdoing that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders, and communities caused or revealed by crime
victim-impact statement
a description of the harm and suffering that a crime has caused victims and survivors
restitution
payments made by a criminal to the victim as compensation for the harm caused by the offense
mandatory sentences
those that are required by law under certain circumstances, such as conviction of specified crime or of a series of offenses of a specified type
presentence report
a report, prepared by the probation department of a court, that provides a social and personal history as well as an evaluation of a defendant as an aid to the court in determining a sentence
consecutive sentences
sentences served one after the other
concurrent sentences
sentences served together
model of criminal sentencing
a strategy or system for imposing criminal sanctions
flat sentences
those that specify a given amount of time to be served in custody and allow little or no variation from the time specified.
indeterminate sentencing
a sentence in which a judge specifies a maximum length and a minimum length, and an administrative agency, generally a parole board, determines the actual time of release
good time
the number of days or months prison authorities deduct from a sentence fo good behavior and for other reasons
determinate sentence
a sentence of a fixed term of incarceration, which can be reduced by good time
sentencing commission
a group assigned to create a schedule of sentences that reflect the gravity of the offenses committed and the prior record of the criminal offender
sentencing enhancements
legislatively approved provisions that mandate longer prisoner terms for specific criminal offenses committed under certain cercumstances
mandatory minimum sentencing
the imposition of sentences required by statute for those convicted of a particular crime or a particular crime with special circumstances
habitual offender statute
a law that allows a person's criminal history to be considered at sentencing
fair sentencing
sentencing practices that incorporate fairness for both victims and offenders.
proportionality
the sentencing principle that the severity of punishment should match the seriousness of the crime for which the sentence is imposed
equity
the sentencing principle that similar crimes and similar criminals should be treated alike.
social debt
the sentencing principle that the severity of punishment should take into account the offender's prior criminal behavior
truth in sentencing
the sentencing principle that requires an offender to serve a substantial portion of the sentence and reduces the discrepancy between the sentence imposed and actual time spent in prison
William Penn
Founder of Pennsylvania, and he was a quaker. Got rid of Death PEnalty for everything but murder
Jeremy Bentham
Hedonistic Calculus! Advocated utlitarinism, and he followed Ceasare Beccaria. He also invented the Panopticon, which is a prison in which the guards can see all the prisoners.
Cesare Beccaria
He also believed in Hedonistic Calculus,and he also believed that punishment should fit the crime. He supported and or created classical criminology. He was also a utilitarinist.
Sir Robert Peel
Father of modern police. His workers were called bobbies. PUnishment should not be imposed by police but by specialists in the field of Penelogy. Idetentified the fundamental functions of policing as investigation of crime and the aprehension of criminals.
Sanford Bates
first director of Federal Bureau of prisons. He believed in rehab and the value of Prison labor. Prison is an artificial environment in which everything is done by clock work, then they are release at the end of their sentence.