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A 65 year old male develops blockage in the pulmonary artery. As a result, blood would first back up into:

Right ventricle

The chamber of the heart that generates the highest pressure is the:

Left ventricle

Oxygenated blood flows through the:

Pulmonary veins

The ___ artery travels down to the chest that caused severe impairments of the primary pacemaker cells of the heart. What received the most damage?

SA node

The effect of acetylcholine on the heart is to:

Decrease the heart rate

Multiplying the heart rate by stroke volume determines:

Cardiac output

The internal lining of the cardiovascular system is formed by what tissue?


What statement correctly describes a direct and effect of the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system?

Angiotension II caused systemic vasoconstriction

One of the most important mechanisms for maintaining venous return to the right atrium is:

Skeletal muscle contraction

___ is the pressure generated at the end of diastole.


A 55 year old female has undiagnosed hypetension. She presents her physician complaining of impaired vision and chronic edema. Lab tests reveal she has renal insufficiency. The most likely cause of this finding is:

Trauma to the deep veins

A 75 year old obese female presents to her physician complaining of edema in the lower extremities. Physical exam reveals that she has varicose veins. What is a possible cause?

Long periods of standing

A 60 year old female was diagnosed with mitral stenosis. As a results, she has incomplete emptying of the:

Left atrium

A 72 year old female has a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis. An echocardiogram reveals back flow into the left ventricle. What is most likely the diagnosis?

Aortic regurgitation

A 10 year old male was diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease. This disease is usually characterized by:

Antigens that bind to the mitral valve leaflets, triggering an autoimmune response.

A 65 year old male with a history of untreated hypertension is now experiencing heart failure. The most likely reason is:

Myocardial hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling

A 65 year old male is diagnosed with chronic pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures generally results from this condition?

Right heart failure

During shock-state, glucose uptake is usually:


The nephrons that determine the concentration of urine are ___ nephrons.


Just before entering the ureter, urine passes through the:

Renal pelvis

The renin-angiotension system will be activated by:

Decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles.

The percentage of filtered sodium that is subsequently reabsorbed back into the plasma is the renal tubules is 99.5%. The majority of this sodium reabsorption takes place in the:

Proximal tubule

Reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts requires which hormone?

Antidiuretic hormone

Oliguria is defines as a 24 hour urine output of less than:

400 mL

Glomerula filtration rate and plasma creatinine concentration are ___ related.


The most common type of renal stone is composed of:


A 25 year old female presents with burning urination. She was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. What organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract?

Eecherichia coli

A 35 year old male received a traumatic brain injury in a motor vehicle accident. CT scan revealed an upper motor neuron lesion above the pontine micturition center. What would be expected?

Detrusor hyperreflexia

A 28 year old female presents with fever, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with pyelonephritis. Her infection is located in the:

Renal pelvis

A 54 year old female is diagnosed with nephritic syndrome. What is a common symptom of this disease?


A 56 year old male presents with flank pain and polyuria. Tests reveal that he has an enlarged prostate. What type of renal failure is most likely occurring?


A 60 year old male is diagnosed with renal failure. What lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis?

Elevated plasma creatinine level

A 42 year old female is diagnosed with chronic renal failure. Treatment includes restricting:


Bone fractures are a risk factor in chronic renal failure because:

The kidneys fail to activate VitD

Anemia accompanies chronic renal failure because of:

Inadequate production of erythroprotein

The most common cause of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is:

Septic shock

Intermitted claudication is a symptom of:

Arterial insufficiency

In general, atherosclerosis is caused by:

Endothelial injury and inflammation

Individuals with Raynaud disease have severe symptoms under which condition?

Cold exposure

A 56 year old male is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. what modifiable risk factor would most likely influence development of this disease?

Cigarette smoking

A 53 year old male pesents with recurrent chest pain on exertion. He is diagosed with angina pectoris. The pain he is experiencing occurs when:

The myocardial oxygen supply has fallen below demand

A 49 year old male presents to his physician complaining of chest pain. EKG reveals ST elevation. He is diagnosed with myocardial ischemia. Which of the following interventions would be most beneficial?

Increase myocardial oxygen supply

Cardiac cells can withstand ischemic conditions for ___ before irreversible injury occurs?

20 minutes

A 75 year old male has severe chest pain and dials 911. Lab tests at the hospital reveal elevated levels of creatinine phosphate and troponin. These elevated levels include:

Myocardial infraction

A 28 year old female presents to the ER complaining of severe pain that worsents with respirations or lyind down. She has a fever, tachycardia, and friction rub. The most likely cause of these symptoms is:

Acute pericarditis

A 15 year old male had an acute throat infection. Eight days later he developed acute glomerulonephritis. What is the most likely cause of this disease?

Group A B-hemolytic streptococcus

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