Refers to traditional one-to-many forms of mediated communication such as TV, radio, newspapers, and books.
Used to describe digital information and telecommunication systems, including networked computing and mobile telecommunication.
Form of communication through which institutional sources (often referred to as "the media") address large, diverse audiences whose members are physically separated from one another.
Reinforces social ideals and passes on cultural understandings from one generation to the next.
When receivers are inundated with news reports, their knowledge of social problems may become superficial and their social concern may be replaced by apathy.
powerful effects model
People who accept the first perspective believe in what has been called the _________.
limited effects model
For people who hold this view, audiences are active processors who are quite capable of defending themselves against media influence.
Receivers were viewed as creative consumers who sought out media messages according to their own needs and interpreted messages in their own ways.
Argue that the media reflect and reproduce only those ideas, meanings, and values that uphold the interests of the power elite and that they silence opposing views.
Developed by George Gerbner, draws our attention to ways in which individuals come to accept the televised world as an accurate reflection of the real world.
The tendency to sensationalize material seems, at first glance, to contradict another important aspect of television content.
Receiver and sender do not have to be present at the same time in order to communicate.