MODULE: 6. Effects of Alcohol and Drugs TOPIC: Alcohol and Drugs SECTION: ALCOHOL AND DRUGS

According to state and national statistics, how many traffic fatalities are associated with alcohol?
What does NHTSA stand for?
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
what age range is the rate of alcohol-related traffic collisions is greater?
16 to 20
What are some effects of alcohol in a young persons body?
•More vulnerable to brain damage
• Increases likelihood of abusing alcohol as an adult
• Poor performance in school and work
• Increases death rate
Alcohol disrupts the physical/ emotional development process by producing a chemical reaction that affects...
• The process of learning
• How to deal with others
• How to carry our responsibilities/ handle problems
• most commonly used and abused drug in the United States
• Hinders/ distorts perception/ ability to operate vehicle
• loss of self control
• confusion
• Inability to concentrae
What is a safe dose of alcohol for underage drinkers?
There is No safe dose for underage drinking
What is the minimum drinking age for all states? How much has it reduced deaths by?
21+ years old
What is the most commonly used and abused drug in the United States?
Ethyl alcohol
Myth or Fact?
Alcohol gives you energy
Myth or Fact?
Alcohol is a depressant

The initial effects of alcohol may heighten your mood, but you will also become
• overconfident,
• your attention span is shortened,
• your ability to think,
-and move will slow down.
Myth or Fact?
If you only drink beer you won't have a problem.
Myth or Fact?
It's not the drink you have, it's the amount of alcohol in the drink
What does BAL stand for?
Blood/breath Alcohol Level

—the percentage of alcohol in your blood
What does BAL do?
BAL determines a persons level of impairment
Myth or Fact?
A cold shower or a cup of coffee will make you sober.
Myth or Fact?
The only thing that sobers you up is time.
Your body needs time to get the alcohol out of your system naturally. Caffeine only makes you an alert drunk.
Myth or Fact?
It's not my business if a friend drinks too much.
Myth or Fact?
You can't make someone else's decisions, but you can be honest
If you're worried for your friend, you can take the car keys and put him or her in a taxi. Don't argue about it, just do it.
Myth or Fact?
The worst thing that can happen is a hangover.
Myth or Fact?
If you drink enough alcohol, you might not be lucky enough to experience the hangover.
With too much alcohol, you are at risk of...
• vomiting in your sleep and dying by asphyxiation,
• lowered heart rate,
• or even slipping into a coma.
Reasons why some teens drink
• Peer pressure
• Influence of parents
• Sociological factors
• Anxiety and frustration
• Just out for a good time
• Change how they are feeling
Peer pressure
Research shows that adolescents generally seek out peer groups with similar attitudes and behaviors.

Pressure from a peer group, especially when individuals in the group condone alcohol, drug use, and other high-risk activities, can encourage you to take the same attitude.
How likely are children of alcoholics to develop the same abusive habit?
children of alcoholics are four to nine times more likely

-The risk may be even higher along parent-child gender lines (father-son, mother-daughter).
Influence of parents
• Negative examples or even supporting teenage drinking by family members affect likelihood of drinking at young age.

-Some parents think drinking at home will keep them out of trouble. However, a recent study showed that children allowed by parents to drink at home, drink more compared to children not allowed to drink.
Sociological factors
• Where you live can affect your attitude toward drinking, smoking, and drug use.

-Although students may choose their peer group, parents choose the community. Neighborhood norms established by adult neighbors shape teenage behavior in the areas of smoking, drinking, and marijuana use.
Anxiety and frustration
• Worries about school, athletics, dating, jobs, family, etc., are all a part of growing up. More serious issues involving sex, self-esteem, and abuse exist as well.

-If these worries and pressures become too much, and a young person has no one to turn to, they might turn to alcohol or drugs to seek relief.
Just out for a good time
• Drinking goes hand in hand with partying for some teenagers. Getting drunk just for the fun of it, being social, testing how much one can drink, and drinking to be more outgoing are some common reasons teens drink, even if they aren't always plainly stated.
Change how they are feeling
People often drink to change how they are feeling, and make themselves feel either more carefree or less stressed.

No matter how good a person might feel when drinking alcohol, the ability to drive a car is severely diminished.
Alcohol affects brain function and sensory perception directly, with judgment being the first to go. ow does this affect diving?
Things like distance and speed perception become much more difficult. Being unable to accurately sense one's surroundings together with a slower reaction time makes any driver a danger to everyone.
How does alcohol change your sense of judgment?
Your sense of
• speed
• distance
• and depth
perception change drastically when you drink.

-An impaired driver is usually unable to sense the distance between cars and the space needed to escape a collision. People who drive under the influence engage in risky behavior. They often do not have an accurate sense of speed.
Can drinking alcohol slow down reflexes and hand-eye coordination?
Yes! Alcohol slows your cognition and ability to make decisions. This includes the ability to perceive danger and react quickly.
Can alcohol affect your vision?
Yes! You must have good peripheral and night vision if you want to drive.
Alcohol slows down the eye's...
• Pupil movement.
• Rapid eye movement,
• And focus ability.
True of false
Car collisions are the number one killer of teens in the U.S.
When you drink alcohol, it filters through your ___1___ and is absorbed into your ___2___ ___2___.
1.) liver
2.) Blood stream
The alcohol level is the ratio between...
Alcohol and blood
Example: a 0.08% BAL means that there are eight drops of alcohol for every 9,992 drops of blood in your body.
Physiological (body-related) factors:
• The size of a person's body
• The amount of time the user engages in drinking
• The amount of food that a person eats
• The gender of the person drinking
The size of a person's body
The more blood you have, the more alcohol you will be able to ingest before the effects become visible.

-A larger person will generally have a lower BAL than a smaller person if drinking the same amount of alcohol.

-However, a higher body weight due to fat may not be helpful. This is because alcohol will not dissolve in fatty tissue.
The amount of alcohol in a drink
The more alcohol in a drink and the more drinks consumed during a given time period, the higher the BAL.
The following drinks will raise your BAL to the same level:
• A 12 ounce beer with 5% alcohol

• A 5 ounce glass of wine with 12% alcohol

• A shot of 80 proof alcohol (hard liquor)
The amount of time the user engages in drinking
• If a user drinks quickly, his or her BAL will be higher because the alcohol has less time to break down. If a user drinks at a much slower rate, the BAL will be lower.
The amount of food that a person eats
Food will notabsorb or dilute alcohol in your body.

-However, eating food first may coat the stomach lining and slow the absorption of what you drink —but this only lasts for a short time. Any alcohol you drink will eventually enter your blood.
The gender of the person drinking
Women do not process alcohol as well as men.
- This is in part due to weight; women weigh less on average.
- Women's bodies also produce less alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme which breaks down alcohol.
How does drinking affect your brain?
Alcohol absorbed into the blood stream is carried to the brain, which is significant because the brain uses more blood than any other part of your body.
How does drinking affect your stomach and intestines?
Alcohol has the ability to irritate your stomach lining and intestines; this can lead to vomiting which also increases blood flow to the stomach and intestines. Secretions of these organs is also increased (especially stomach acid secretion). Excessive consumption of alcohol may cause bleeding in the stomach.
How much of alcohol consumed is absorbed into the mouth and throat?
About 5%
How much is then absorbed within the digestive system?
About 95%
How does drinking affect your liver?
The liver's function is to remove poisons (including alcohol) from the body. It works by creating substances that fight infections and help blood clotting. Your liver also detoxifies many substances in the blood. Alcohol may cause illnesses like alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation) or cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver.
True or False
Alcohol cannot be retained in your body's tissue without serious health consequences
what percent of of the all alcohol consumed passes unchanged by the body's functions?
About 2-5%
what percent of the total is eliminated through the kidneys, lungs and skin?
Less than 10%
what percent must be slowly eliminated by your liver through the process of oxidation?
The remaining 90%
What does alcohol do to your red blood cells?
Alcohol also causes your red blood cells to clump together, which clogs up your blood vessels.
Do you get too much or too little oxygen in your tissue?
Your tissues are deprived of oxygen and may result in cell death.
Here are some other ways alcohol effects your blood:
• You may become anemic.
• You may have reduced red and white blood counts, which in turn lowers your resistance to infection.
True or False
Almost any drug has the ability to hinder a person's driving ability.
some facts about drugs and driving:
• Most drugs taken for headaches, colds, hay fever, allergies, or stress are sedatives. They can make you drowsy and impair your driving abilities.

• Any drug can make driving unsafe. Prescription medications used in combination with alcohol can be dangerous.

• Drivers should always ask doctors or pharmacists how prescription medications may affect driving.

• Many drugs have unexpected effects when combined with drinking.
How do pep pills, "uppers," and diet pills affect driving?
They may make a driver more alert for a short time. However, this could include nervousness, dizziness, and lack of concentration. These drugs can also impair vision.
How do readily available drugs like cough syrups affect driving?
Using readily available drugs like cough syrups (which usually contain alcohol) while driving can be considered driving under the influence.
Narcotics (a category that includes pain killers like codeine or Demerol) can cause...
• drowsiness,
• lethargy,
• poor coordination,
• and a sense of well-being.
Sedative-hypnotic drugs, including barbiturates, are...
powerful depressants prescribed to calm people down or help them sleep. Remember that a sleepy or sedated driver is unsafe.
True or False
Driving while impaired by ANY drug is illegal.
What is the second most common drug found in the bodies of collision victims?
Is marijuana harmless?
Marijuana is not harmless. This drug is considered a mild hallucinogen and often affects user perception.
Why are teens attracted to marijuana?
• Easy to get
• Cheap
• Used by family
• Introduced by friends
What does it feel like?
Some people say they feel nothing at all when smoking marijuana.

Others report feeling relaxed or high.
Side effects of marijuana
• increased hunger or thirst
• lost sense of control,
• feelings of anxiety,
• increased heart rate,
• paranoia,
• or hallucinations.
The effects of marijuana:
1. Reaction time is often slower. This gives the driver less time to react to and avoid hazards.

2. Drivers often fail to recognize traffic signs, signals, and pavement markings.

3. Marijuana use introduces a passive mood. Users show increased tendency to drive at slower speeds,which can impede traffic flow.

4. Users' attention spans are limited. Concentrating on several things at once becomes more difficult.

5. The ability to sense time and distance relationships is lessened. This causes difficulty in judging adequate passing, following, and stopping distances.

6.Pupils respond to light slowly. Therefore, you will not be able to adjust properly to changes in light or darkness.
How long will your license be suspended for marijuana?
Your license will be suspended for a period of one year if you are found guilty of marijuana possession.
True or False
Combining marijuana with alcohol can prove fatal. This combination can affect performance even more than when either of the drugs is taken alone.
What are some types of stimulants?
• amphetamines,
• cocaine,
• "pep"pills
What does cocaine do?
• extreme mood swings
• feelings of euphoria
• severe depression
• violent hallucinations
Side effects of cocaine
• sluggish recovery
• blurred vision. Both affect perception and considerably reduce a person's ability to drive safely.
Stimulants like speed, methamphetamines, and crack can give users...
• a false sense of well-being,
• trouble concentrating,
• impatience,
• aggressiveness
• chronic paranoia.
Heroin is an extremely addictive drug derived from...
Morphine, which comes from the opium poppy
Stages of heroin
1.)A brief euphoria

2.) "on the nod," which is both a wakeful and drowsy state.

3.)A user's capacity to think critically gets clouded because heroin triggers depression of the central nervous system.

Other effects include
- slowed/ slurred speech
- sluggish movement
- constricted pupils
- droopy eyelids
- impaired night vision
- constipation
- vomiting.
Using heroin can slow a driver's
- reaction time
- cause visual distortions
- and impair simple motor skills.

In severe cases, heroin causes stupor, coma, and death.
Types of Hallucinogens
• LSD (acid)
• Mescaline
• PCP (angel dust)
• Peyote trigger visual
What do Hallucinogens do?
Impair your judgment and severely distort your ability to perceive danger.

These drugs can create a false sense of super strength and invulnerability, often resulting in aggressive behavior.
If an officer suspects that you are under the influence of any drug, he or she can...
Require that you take a blood or urine test.

Those who refuse to be tested are subject to the same license suspensions and revocations as those who refuse alcohol testing.
Some ways to avoid driving while intoxicated:
• Abstain from drinking alcohol

• Use public transportation

• Appoint a designated driver

• Stay where you are until sober

• Drink responsibly at home

• Encourage friends to stay overnight if you think they are impaired

• Let someone sober drive the car for you
You should watch out for drivers that exhibit the following tendencies:
• Driving faster than conditions allow

• Sporadic changes in speed or slow driving in the "fast" lane

• Driving over the curb, changing into the wrong lane, weaving, or straddling two lanes

• Frequent and unnecessary lane changes

• Driving over the center-line or crossing a double yellow line

• Stopping short of a stop sign, overshooting a stop sign, running a stop sign; alternately,

• stopping for a green light or stopping on the road

• Failure to signal or deceptive signaling

• Driving at night with no lights or failing to dim bright lights

• Risky maneuvering or showing off
If you think the driver next to you is drunk
• Slow down and let him or her go by.

• You can even pull over to let the driver pass.

• Keep a safe distance from the car. You never know what to expect.
True or False
It is safer to have an impaired driver in front of you than behind you.