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Which sphincter keeps stomach acid from regurgitating into the esophagus?

Lower esophageal

Absorption of nutrients from the intestine occurs initially through the


The primary bile acids are synthesized from ___ by hepatocytes lining the bile canaliculi


Parasympathetic stimulation to the pancreas causes which of the following reactions?

Enzyme secretion

A 70-year old male presents complaining of frequent gastrointestinal problems. His physician explains that during aging GI changes such as ___ occur

Decreased gastric juice secretion

A 50 year old male complains of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools. A possible diagnosis would be:

Ulcerative colitis

A common clinical manifestation of portal hypertension is:

Esophageal bleeding

Problems associated with hepatic encephalopathy from chronic liver disease are the result of:

Impaired ammonia metabolism

The icteric phase of hepatitis is characterized by which of the following clinical manifestations?

Jaundice, dark urine, enlarged liver

Cholecytitis is inflammation of the gallbladder wall usually caused by:

Obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone

A 31 year old female presents with midabdominal pain. She is expected to have acute pancreatitis. Which of the following lab results is most specific to this diagnosis?

Elevated serum lipase

Which modifiable risk factor is associated with esophageal, stomach and colorectal cancer?

Cigarette and alcohol use

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