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Reverse Racism

Claim made by many white or male Americans that Affirmative Action is effectively discrimination against them

Sweatt vs. Painter

University of Texas cannot state a separate black law school because it is not equal to an existing law school.

Frontiero v. Richardson

an Equal Protection case in which the Supreme Court decided that benefits given by the United States military to the family of service members cannot be given out differently because of gender.

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

After a first trial going to the Board of Education, the Court held that busing was an appropriate remedy for the problem of racial imbalance among schools, even where the imbalance resulted from the selection of students based on geographic proximity to the school rather than from deliberate assignment based on race.

Bakke v. California

Applicant to university in California cannot attend college because the school wanted more diversity, so he got knocked off the list.

24th Amendment

Banning poll tax

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Outlaws discrimination in public accommodations. Prohibits discrimination in employees.

Heart of Atlanta v. U.S.

Outlaws discrimination in public accommodations.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

The government cannot do anything to keep citizens from voting.

Loving v. Virginia

Ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.

Civil Rights Act of 1991

Made it easier for job applicants and employees to bring suit against employers with discriminatory hiring practices

Cooper v. Aaron

The states were bound by the Court's decisions, and could not choose to ignore them. (Little Rock Nine case)

14th Amendment

Equal protection clause. No one can deny to any one because of their race.

Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Forces

Integrated military

Shelly v. Kraemer

Court ruled that racially restrictive covenants in housing contracts violated equal protection clause

Brown v. Board of Education

Separate is not equal

Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but Equal

19th Amendment

Grants women the right to vote

Reed v. Reed

Idaho case that ruled probate laws must treat sexes equally

Craig v Boren

Oklahoma case in which girls were allowed to buy 3.2 beer at 18, but boys had a 21 year old drinking limit

Gloria Steinem

Activist for women's rights

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