Civil Rights in America

Reverse Racism
Claim made by many white or male Americans that Affirmative Action is effectively discrimination against them
Sweatt vs. Painter
University of Texas cannot state a separate black law school because it is not equal to an existing law school.
Frontiero v. Richardson
an Equal Protection case in which the Supreme Court decided that benefits given by the United States military to the family of service members cannot be given out differently because of gender.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
After a first trial going to the Board of Education, the Court held that busing was an appropriate remedy for the problem of racial imbalance among schools, even where the imbalance resulted from the selection of students based on geographic proximity to the school rather than from deliberate assignment based on race.
Bakke v. California
Applicant to university in California cannot attend college because the school wanted more diversity, so he got knocked off the list.
24th Amendment
Banning poll tax
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlaws discrimination in public accommodations. Prohibits discrimination in employees.
Heart of Atlanta v. U.S.
Outlaws discrimination in public accommodations.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The government cannot do anything to keep citizens from voting.
Loving v. Virginia
Ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.
Civil Rights Act of 1991
Made it easier for job applicants and employees to bring suit against employers with discriminatory hiring practices
Cooper v. Aaron
The states were bound by the Court's decisions, and could not choose to ignore them. (Little Rock Nine case)
14th Amendment
Equal protection clause. No one can deny to any one because of their race.
Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Forces
Integrated military
Shelly v. Kraemer
Court ruled that racially restrictive covenants in housing contracts violated equal protection clause
Brown v. Board of Education
Separate is not equal
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but Equal
19th Amendment
Grants women the right to vote
Reed v. Reed
Idaho case that ruled probate laws must treat sexes equally
Craig v Boren
Oklahoma case in which girls were allowed to buy 3.2 beer at 18, but boys had a 21 year old drinking limit
Gloria Steinem
Activist for women's rights