-began in England and spread across the European continent throughout the early 19th century, before making its way across the Atlantic, and into the US.
-China had a wealth of human resources, as well as some natural resources (particularly coal), and for a long time, low production costs.
-1980s and 90s there was a skyrocketing demand for cheap goods, especially electronics like personal computers, but also commodities like steel and even agricultural products.
-Not to mention, starting from the bottom, everything was cheaper in China. There were fewer administrative costs, the standard of living was low, and labor and environmental regulations were (and remain to some degree) in their infancy-they did not exist or, in some cases, were not enforced.
-needs to focus on imports and exports instead of just exports
-an outcome of consumption, decreased environmental and human health
-consumption is growing
-resources are needed to support production: oil, ores, water, wood pulp, cotton, and copper, are just a few materials on the laundry list of Chinese imports
-economic activity and energy consumption are inextricably linked.
-China is the world' s largest consumer of energy (and coal)
-Coal remains the country's top source of energy today.
-coal is found in the remote northwest of the country and the places that consume the most are on the coast; rail infrastructure used to transport coal is antiquated and inefficient.
-Used to get a majority of oil from Southeast Asia, now from Perisan Gulf states (especially Saudi Arabia)
-SUDAN has become China's largest and most important overseas oil investment, and it has invested billions of dollars into developing oil fields and building pipelines, refineries, and export terminals.
-Oil and fossil fuels in general, are not the only commodity that China needs to operate its economy.
-why some locales or regions, apart from mere location in a hazard zone, are more or less apt to be affected by an event
-the predisposition to be hurt by an event beyond a certain magnitude, where predisposition includes both natural and anthropogenic factors of influence. It is closely related to pre-hazard conditions and includes not only geographic location, but also factors such as socioeconomic development, population distribution, and the management actions taken BEFORE a hazard strikes.
-therefore, it is the human element that most often contributes to increased vulnerability. Contributing factors may include(but are not limited to):
-imbalances in power
-conflict and strife
-inadequate human development
-rapid population growth and urbaniztion
-lack of wealth
-inadequate or lack of resources (food, water, shelter, and medical aid)
-biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components of an ecosystem to a specific threat
-includes the potential for harm to soil, vegetation, water, and even wildlife.
-Communities may depend on a number of specific services provided by an ecosystem. When those parts of the ecosystem are damaged or fail, it results in not only a loss of environmental health, but potentially the social and economic well-being of the people who depend on them.
-Although environmental vulnerability may be more commonly associated with disasters such as flooding, droughts, and wildfires, tectonic activity can result in environmental harm. This is particularly true of tsunamis and landslides triggered by seismic events (earthquakes). The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in western China had a considerable impact on farmlands and forest due to the landslides (and subsequent flooding) it caused. Likewise, most are aware of the tsunami-related meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex following the Tohoku Earthquake that struck off the coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. Fisheries, water supplies, and soil surrounding the area were inundated by debris and exposed to massive amounts of radiation, and contaminated cities and agricultural lands have been abandoned. Addressing the environmental impact of such a disaster is beyond the scope of this lesson, but one sentence feels like a gross understatement of the fallout.
history, labor (both in terms of a resource and the laws that govern labor practices, environmental policy, economic conditions (tied to labor, but also trade, markets, and taxation), and the means of production (raw materials, infrastructure, factories, and, again, labor). Concerns about major environmental impacts, the relocation of 1.2 million people, and the flooding of 13 cities, more than 1300 villages, archeological locations, and hazardous waste dumps were raised throughout the planning and implementation.
**environmental concerns include increased seismicity from the loading of the water, landslides, changed ecosystems, accumulated pollution, increased chances for waterborne diseases, and salinity changes in the Yangtze estuary.
Household registration has also been a target of reform, but change has been scaled, controlled and slow. For example, initial amendments began shortly after the economy opened, as both the mobility of the population and criticism of the system increased. Changes at that time, continuing through the 1990s, were mainly administrative (that is, who will manage registrations and quotas), but also allowed for transfers in some locations and under certain, specific circumstances.
Unfortunately for many, the reforms that are taking place today are really not all that different than in the past, setting criteria in limited locales, which most rural migrants cannot meet. A more recent example comes from one of the country's most thriving provinces, Guangdong. In 2014, authorities there announced that they would be relaxing the Hukou policy in select cities to attract more, and more skilled, workers. Those with an established place of residence who have held a job in the city for at least three (in some cities, five) years, will be allowed to apply for a permanent registration change. Higher degree-holding graduates can also apply for residency in most cities, with the right to transfer to other cities in the province. Guangdong's largest cities, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, are looking to control their already sizeable populations, while still attracting the talent they need to continue growing economically.
-Chinese premier: Li Keqiang - Hukou system as a barrier to urbanizaiton and economic growht