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Explicit memory

also known as declarative memory that is for specific information that is clearly stated or explained (general knowledge or autobiographical)

Episodic memory

autobiographical, happen to us in our presence, experienced by a person and sometimes reconstructed inaccurately.

Prospective memory

remembering to do something in the future

Semantic memory

general knowledge, opposite of episodic, concerned with the meaning of the memory, not the who/what/when/why experience

Implicit memory

non declarative memory, what people do, involves skills and reveal habits.


a phenomenon when specific associations in memory occur because of repetition and don't need a conscious effort to access it.

retrospective memory

recalling information that has been previously learned.

prospective memory

involves remembering to do things in the future, fails when preoccupied

habitual tasks

a routine task that is easy to remember to do

occasional tasks

arbitrary events, motivation plays a role

age related decline

decline in speed of cognitive processing in adults.


modifying info so that it can be placed in memory; this is the first stage

visual code

trying to remember something mentally as a picture

acoustic coding

remember things through sound

semantic doe

remember things by it's meaning.


second stage, maintenance of info over time to process it.

maintenance rehearsal

repeat the list/say it to yourself to keep it in memory


self awareness of the ways in which memory functions, allowing person to encode, store and retrieve info effectively.

elaborative rehearsal

new info is related to info that is already known


third memory process where info is located and return to "consciousness" and put back into STM


process by which info is encoded, stored, retrieved

sensory memory

holds impressions briefly so series of perceptions are psych. continuous.

memory trace

reflects the impression made by stimulus, geld in sensory registers

sensory register

system that holds info briefly so it can be processed further

iconic memory

sensory register that holds mental reps of visual stimuli

eidetic imagery

maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutes


mental reps of sounds

short term memory

owrking memory, can hold info for up to a minute after the stimulus decays

serial position effect

tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series.

primary effect

tendency to recall initial items in a series

recency effect

tendency to recall last items in series


repeating info and condensing it into a set of words with meaning

George Miller

said average person will remember seven plus or minus two so (5-9) "chunks" of into in a series.


mechanical associative learning based on repetition


new info displaces old info

Long term memory

stage of memory capable of relatively permanent storage; a biochemical hard drive with no known limits on the GB of info it can store

Cocktail party phenomenon

The ability to unconsciously monitor the contents of one conversation while consciously focusing on another


the ejection of anxiety evoking ideas from conscious awareness


a belief or expectation that can influence perfection of persons, objects, and situations

Elizabeth Loftus

psychologist that said memories are changeable and susceptible to bias and suggestion. Experiment dealing with eyewitness testimonies

Tip of the tongue phenomenon

feeling of knowing experience, when you feel that info is stored in memory although cannot be readily retreived

context dependent memory

info that is better retrieved in the context which it was learned

flashbulb memories

emotional and unusual arousing circumstances can elborately be etched into storage because of traumatic or major experience

exceptional recall


deja vu

"already seen" occur when we are in a context similar to the one we have been in before

state dependent memory

info that is better retrieved when you are in that physiological or emotional state when it was learned


developed nonsense syllables to measure function of memory

forgetting curve

rapid drop of number of retrievals over time, nonsense syllables precipitate, but you never forget everything

nonsense syllables

meaningless set of consonants used to study memory


identify objects or events encountered before


retrieval or reconstruction of learned material

paired associates

nonsense sullables presented in pairs that measure recal


measures retention-- when material is relearned quickly than it was initially

interference theory

the view that we may forget stored material because of other learning interferes with it

retroactive interference

new stuff effects the ability to remember old stuff

proactive interference

old stuff effects ability to remember the enw stuff


the organ that plays important role in the formation of new memories

dissociative amnesia

amnesia from psychological conflict or trauma


causes enhanced memory recall during emotionally charged situation


fake forgot something

infantile amnesia

inability to recall events that occur prior to age of two or three.

anterograde amnesia

failure to remember events that occur AFTER the trauma bc of the trauma

retrograde amnesia

failure to remember events BEFORE the trauma bc of the trauma

Aplysia snail

sea snail that is used to study memory, studied long term potentiation

Wilder Penfield

In 1960s performed electrical stimulation of brain during brain surgeries, found enhanced recall of memories on a certain organ that was went through ESB

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