65 terms

Chapter 7 Memory Test

Explicit memory
also known as declarative memory that is for specific information that is clearly stated or explained (general knowledge or autobiographical)
Episodic memory
autobiographical, happen to us in our presence, experienced by a person and sometimes reconstructed inaccurately.
Prospective memory
remembering to do something in the future
Semantic memory
general knowledge, opposite of episodic, concerned with the meaning of the memory, not the who/what/when/why experience
Implicit memory
non declarative memory, what people do, involves skills and reveal habits.
a phenomenon when specific associations in memory occur because of repetition and don't need a conscious effort to access it.
retrospective memory
recalling information that has been previously learned.
prospective memory
involves remembering to do things in the future, fails when preoccupied
habitual tasks
a routine task that is easy to remember to do
occasional tasks
arbitrary events, motivation plays a role
age related decline
decline in speed of cognitive processing in adults.
modifying info so that it can be placed in memory; this is the first stage
visual code
trying to remember something mentally as a picture
acoustic coding
remember things through sound
semantic doe
remember things by it's meaning.
second stage, maintenance of info over time to process it.
maintenance rehearsal
repeat the list/say it to yourself to keep it in memory
self awareness of the ways in which memory functions, allowing person to encode, store and retrieve info effectively.
elaborative rehearsal
new info is related to info that is already known
third memory process where info is located and return to "consciousness" and put back into STM
process by which info is encoded, stored, retrieved
sensory memory
holds impressions briefly so series of perceptions are psych. continuous.
memory trace
reflects the impression made by stimulus, geld in sensory registers
sensory register
system that holds info briefly so it can be processed further
iconic memory
sensory register that holds mental reps of visual stimuli
eidetic imagery
maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutes
mental reps of sounds
short term memory
owrking memory, can hold info for up to a minute after the stimulus decays
serial position effect
tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series.
primary effect
tendency to recall initial items in a series
recency effect
tendency to recall last items in series
repeating info and condensing it into a set of words with meaning
George Miller
said average person will remember seven plus or minus two so (5-9) "chunks" of into in a series.
mechanical associative learning based on repetition
new info displaces old info
Long term memory
stage of memory capable of relatively permanent storage; a biochemical hard drive with no known limits on the GB of info it can store
Cocktail party phenomenon
The ability to unconsciously monitor the contents of one conversation while consciously focusing on another
the ejection of anxiety evoking ideas from conscious awareness
a belief or expectation that can influence perfection of persons, objects, and situations
Elizabeth Loftus
psychologist that said memories are changeable and susceptible to bias and suggestion. Experiment dealing with eyewitness testimonies
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
feeling of knowing experience, when you feel that info is stored in memory although cannot be readily retreived
context dependent memory
info that is better retrieved in the context which it was learned
flashbulb memories
emotional and unusual arousing circumstances can elborately be etched into storage because of traumatic or major experience
exceptional recall
deja vu
"already seen" occur when we are in a context similar to the one we have been in before
state dependent memory
info that is better retrieved when you are in that physiological or emotional state when it was learned
developed nonsense syllables to measure function of memory
forgetting curve
rapid drop of number of retrievals over time, nonsense syllables precipitate, but you never forget everything
nonsense syllables
meaningless set of consonants used to study memory
identify objects or events encountered before
retrieval or reconstruction of learned material
paired associates
nonsense sullables presented in pairs that measure recal
measures retention-- when material is relearned quickly than it was initially
interference theory
the view that we may forget stored material because of other learning interferes with it
retroactive interference
new stuff effects the ability to remember old stuff
proactive interference
old stuff effects ability to remember the enw stuff
the organ that plays important role in the formation of new memories
dissociative amnesia
amnesia from psychological conflict or trauma
causes enhanced memory recall during emotionally charged situation
fake forgot something
infantile amnesia
inability to recall events that occur prior to age of two or three.
anterograde amnesia
failure to remember events that occur AFTER the trauma bc of the trauma
retrograde amnesia
failure to remember events BEFORE the trauma bc of the trauma
Aplysia snail
sea snail that is used to study memory, studied long term potentiation
Wilder Penfield
In 1960s performed electrical stimulation of brain during brain surgeries, found enhanced recall of memories on a certain organ that was went through ESB