Chapter 7 Memory Test
also known as declarative memory that is for specific information that is clearly stated or explained (general knowledge or autobiographical)
autobiographical, happen to us in our presence, experienced by a person and sometimes reconstructed inaccurately.
remembering to do something in the future
general knowledge, opposite of episodic, concerned with the meaning of the memory, not the who/what/when/why experience
non declarative memory, what people do, involves skills and reveal habits.
a phenomenon when specific associations in memory occur because of repetition and don't need a conscious effort to access it.
recalling information that has been previously learned.
involves remembering to do things in the future, fails when preoccupied
a routine task that is easy to remember to do
arbitrary events, motivation plays a role
age related decline
decline in speed of cognitive processing in adults.
modifying info so that it can be placed in memory; this is the first stage
trying to remember something mentally as a picture
remember things through sound
remember things by it's meaning.
second stage, maintenance of info over time to process it.
repeat the list/say it to yourself to keep it in memory
self awareness of the ways in which memory functions, allowing person to encode, store and retrieve info effectively.
new info is related to info that is already known
third memory process where info is located and return to "consciousness" and put back into STM
process by which info is encoded, stored, retrieved
holds impressions briefly so series of perceptions are psych. continuous.
reflects the impression made by stimulus, geld in sensory registers
system that holds info briefly so it can be processed further
sensory register that holds mental reps of visual stimuli
maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutes
mental reps of sounds
short term memory
owrking memory, can hold info for up to a minute after the stimulus decays
serial position effect
tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series.
tendency to recall initial items in a series
tendency to recall last items in series
repeating info and condensing it into a set of words with meaning
said average person will remember seven plus or minus two so (5-9) "chunks" of into in a series.
mechanical associative learning based on repetition
new info displaces old info
Long term memory
stage of memory capable of relatively permanent storage; a biochemical hard drive with no known limits on the GB of info it can store
Cocktail party phenomenon
The ability to unconsciously monitor the contents of one conversation while consciously focusing on another
the ejection of anxiety evoking ideas from conscious awareness
a belief or expectation that can influence perfection of persons, objects, and situations
psychologist that said memories are changeable and susceptible to bias and suggestion. Experiment dealing with eyewitness testimonies
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
feeling of knowing experience, when you feel that info is stored in memory although cannot be readily retreived
context dependent memory
info that is better retrieved in the context which it was learned
emotional and unusual arousing circumstances can elborately be etched into storage because of traumatic or major experience
"already seen" occur when we are in a context similar to the one we have been in before
state dependent memory
info that is better retrieved when you are in that physiological or emotional state when it was learned
developed nonsense syllables to measure function of memory
rapid drop of number of retrievals over time, nonsense syllables precipitate, but you never forget everything
meaningless set of consonants used to study memory
identify objects or events encountered before
retrieval or reconstruction of learned material
nonsense sullables presented in pairs that measure recal
measures retention-- when material is relearned quickly than it was initially
the view that we may forget stored material because of other learning interferes with it
new stuff effects the ability to remember old stuff
old stuff effects ability to remember the enw stuff
the organ that plays important role in the formation of new memories
amnesia from psychological conflict or trauma
causes enhanced memory recall during emotionally charged situation
fake forgot something
inability to recall events that occur prior to age of two or three.
failure to remember events that occur AFTER the trauma bc of the trauma
failure to remember events BEFORE the trauma bc of the trauma
sea snail that is used to study memory, studied long term potentiation
In 1960s performed electrical stimulation of brain during brain surgeries, found enhanced recall of memories on a certain organ that was went through ESB